Volume 12 Issue 2 (2023)

The Utility of ChatGPT in Educational Research—Potential Opportunities and Pitfalls

pp. 7-13  |  Published Online: May 2023  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2023.122.1

Turgut Karakose


Background/purpose –Leveraging the latest developments in natural language processing, recent versions of ChatGPT has demonstrated astounding performance on a wide array of tasks through its ability to understand and generate human language, and respond to diverse conversational prompts. Its remarkable performance in numerous applications has also attracted researchers’ attention, prompting investigations into the potential utility of this AI-tool to enhance scientific work. The current paper aims to present a succinct overview of the opportunities and challenges of using ChatGPT in educational research based on the anticipations and analysis of scholars from different fields of research.

Practical implications – ChatGPT is a double-edged sword with its potential benefits and caveats for scientific research. Educational researchers could benefit from the utility of ChatGPT in identifying gaps in the literature, generating new ideas and developing hypothesis, devising surveys or rating scales, conducting systematic reviews, eliminating human error in analysis of large datasets as well as drafting and editing scientific manuscripts. On the other hand, the current limitations of ChatGPT in enabling a reliable and transparent generation of content, its inability to provide accurate references or tendency to suggest non-existent resources, and incompatibility with the current ethical and legal obligations of academic publishing warrants cautious and meticulous endeavor of educational researchers.

Conclusion – The current era has witnessed groundbreaking advancements in AI-based technologies, which will for sure act as precursor for the development of more-developed AI-systems that could overcome the recent shortcomings of ChatGPT in aiding scientific research. Till then, scientists working in the education field should continue striving to understand its potential to advance any aspect of their scientific quest, and collaborate to formulate guidelines and principles to enable the ethical and responsible integration of these new technologies into scientific research and publishing. 

Keywords: ChatGPT, educational research, artificial intelligence, AI-based technologies


Exploring Within Team Differences in Coaching Supports

pp. 14-32  |  Published Online: May 2023  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2023.122.2

Rosalie Hiuyan Chung


Background/purpose – Coaching supports teachers to varying degrees, and the same coach may engage different teachers in distinct ways. This study explores this variation in coaches’ interactions with different teachers over 2 years to identify supports for coaches to develop positive coaching dynamics with teachers.

Materials/methods – The study presents a comparative case study of two coaches who each oversaw two different teachers. Drawing on interviews with teachers and coaches over 2 years and videorecorded observations of coaching sessions, coach-teacher interactions were examined as well as individual’s perceptions to understand how and why coaches interact differentially with teachers.

Results – While the coaches did not differentiate their coaching process for teachers, they met teachers at different frequencies. Rather than determining their coaching frequency on teachers’ instructional skills, the coaches met more regularly with teachers who had stronger relationships with the coach.

Conclusion – The study illustrates that coaches’ dynamics with individual teachers vary, which can lead to some teachers being more receptive to the same coach than others. This study’s results underscore the need to support coaches in learning how to systematically differentiate their coaching based on individual teacher’s needs.

Keywords: coaching, coaching dosage, coaching perceptions, teacher differentiation


The Impact of an Effective Communication Course with Enhanced Student Engagement on Communication Skills and Empathic Tendency of Preservice Teachers

pp. 33-58  |  Published Online: May 2023  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2023.122.3

Özge Ceren Çelik, Gülgün Alpan


Background/purpose – The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an Effective Communication course with enhanced student engagement on preservice teachers’ communication skills and empathic tendency levels.

Materials/methods – The study adopted a mixed-methods design where the one-group pretest–posttest design was used.

Results – It was found that the Effective Communication course with enhanced student engagement had a significant impact on the empathic tendency levels of preservice teachers, albeit with a small effect size. However, the impact of the course on communication skills was not statistically significant. The preservice teachers found the course efficient in contributing to their theoretical knowledge about communication and improving their attitudes and basic skills.

Conclusion – It was concluded that enhancing student engagement through an Effective Communication course had a limited contribution in optimizing the communication skills and empathic tendency levels of future teachers.

Keywords: preservice teacher education, mixed methods, student engagement, communication


Misconceptions about Numbers and Operations–A Case Study of Preschoolers

pp. 59-75  |  Published Online: May 2023  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2023.122.4

Artemis Eleftheriadi, Konstantinos Lavidas, Gerasimos Koustourakis, Stamatis Papadakis


Background/purpose – Investigation into the misconceptions of preschool students in mathematics and their differences between the ages of 4-5 and 5-6 years old helps form appropriate developmental mathematics teaching programs. However, although several studies have been conducted examining preschoolers’ previous knowledge and misconceptions about mathematics, no corresponding research has been found in Greece. This study aims to investigate preschoolers’ misconceptions about numbers and operations and to reveal differences between preschoolers aged 4-5 and 5-6 years old.

Materials/methods – Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed according to content analysis methodology.

Results – The study’s results showed that 5-6-year-old preschoolers perform better than those aged 4-5 years old. Most misconceptions of the latter group appeared to be related to reverse counting, identifying arithmetic symbols and their matching quantities, adding and removing numbers without using auxiliary objects and multiplication. On the contrary, some preschoolers aged 5-6 years old needed help adding or subtracting two-digit numbers without the use of auxiliary objects. There were also a few cases where cardinality, division, and multiplication were observed.

Conclusion – The misconceptions identified in the two groups of students regarding numbers and operations and their distinct needs that emerged through the research will allow teachers to offer differentiated instruction and personalize teaching support.

Keywords: math, preschool education, numbers; operations, knowledge skills, misconceptions


Expectations for Training Mentors: Insights from a Preservice Language Teacher Education Program

pp. 76-92  |  Published Online: May 2023  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2023.122.5

Gizem Mutlu-Gülbak


Background/purpose – The significant role of mentor teachers during practicum studies necessitates training that specifically addresses mentoring expectations in the teaching context. Drawing on critical constructivist teacher education, this study aims to investigate the expectations of student teachers, mentor teachers, and university supervisors from mentoring.

Materials/methods – Data were collected from 79 preservice teachers, 37 mentor teachers, and six university supervisors through a researcher-designed questionnaire and in-depth, semi-structured interviews.

Results – Analysis of the participants’ responses showed that all three groups chose giving feedback to student teachers and knowledge on mentoring duty as the two most important themes that mentor teachers should receive training for. In addition, observing student teachers was another prominent theme for the mentor teachers group, whereas the student teachers group underlined the theme of knowledge on practicum procedures as a concern to be addressed in the training of mentors.

Conclusion – The results provided not only valuable data to inform an online mentor training program, but also uncovered concerns experienced by all three participant groups, highlighting certain actions that are recommended to be taken.

Keywords: mentoring, language teacher education, preservice teacher education, student teachers


An Interview with ChatGPT on Emergency Remote Teaching: A Comparative Analysis Based on Human–AI Collaboration

pp. 93-110  |  Published Online: May 2023  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2023.122.6

Tijen Tülübaş, Murat Demirkol, Tuncay Yavuz Ozdemir, Hakan Polat, Turgut Karakose, Ramazan Yirci


Background/purpose – ChatGPT, a recent form of AI-based language model, have garnered interest among people from diverse backgrounds with its immersive capabilities. Using ChatGPT to support or generate scientific research has also created an ongoing debate over its advantages versus risks. The present study aimed to conduct an AI-enabled research process using ChatGPT so as to evaluate its potential to generate an accurate, clear, concise, and unbiased information as these are essential elements of rigorous scientific work.

Materials/methods – To achieve this aim, we worked on emergency remote teaching (ERT), which garnered significant interest due to its wide-spread use during the COVID-19 pandemic, and created opposing views, particularly in comparison to online teaching. We conducted a simultaneous query on ChatGPT-3.5 and 4 on five basic themes: (1) the definition and emergence of ERT, (2) the appropriateness of ERT for different grade levels, (3) a comparison between ERT and online teaching, (4) the possible outcomes of ERT, (5) the future prospects and uses of ERT, and we performed a comparative evaluation of these responses with regard to accuracy, clarity, conciseness, and potential bias. We also used Cohen’s kappa to assess inter-rater agreement in our analysis.

Results – The results indicated that both versions were capable of generating accurate information without significant bias although the responses lacked depth and insight with being somewhat repetitive. As the level of judgment required by the query increased, the performance of ChatGPT-4 was much better; it provided clearer and more concise responses with a more synthesized and detailed categories of information on ERT.

Conclusion – Based on our results, we state that the cooperation of human and artificial intelligence is still warranted to ensure an accurate and reliable output from AI-based scientific queries. If ChatGPT is a plane with innovative technologies, there still needs to be a pilot in the cockpit to make use of these technologies in the best way so as to fly the plane safely to its destination.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, ChatGPT, emergency remote teaching, OpenAI, generative AI, AI in education, chatbot


The Role of Chinese Music in Shaping Students’ Creative Thinking

pp. 111-123  |  Published Online: May 2023  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2023.122.7

Jing Qi


Background/purpose – The process of shaping students’ creative thinking in modern society takes on a new, deeper, and broader dimension. Therefore, studying the role of Chinese music in developing the creativity of primary, secondary, and tertiary education students is deemed relevant. The purpose of this study was to comprehend ways of forming creative thinking of students through the study of Chinese music.

Materials/methods – The research problem was addressed through searching for and collecting data, analyzing and compiling the information obtained, identifying and deducing categories of the collected data, and through compiling tables and figures to demonstrate the research problem as an integral, multi-component system.

Results – The role of Chinese music in developing creative thinking among students is multifaceted, and includes teaching methods and material support. This system is essential to achieving global education goals, introducing students to other cultures, creating a multicultural learning environment, and promoting emotional responsiveness to Chinese music.

Conclusion – The relevance of the research problem, its responsiveness to the demands of the time and flexibility determines the promise of study in the area under consideration and determines its value from both theoretical and practical perspectives.

Keywords: creativity, melodies of China, rhythms of Chinese music, Chinese national musical instruments, educational program


How Psychological Empowerment Influences Faculty Members’ Change Orientation: Does Knowledge Inertia Have a Mediating Role?

pp. 124-143  |  Published Online: May 2023  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2023.122.8

Muslim Alanoglu, Songül Karabatak


Background/purpose – This study aims to determine the effect of faculty members’ psychological empowerment on their change orientation and the mediating role of knowledge inertia (learning and experience) in this effect.

Materials/methods – A cross-sectional research design was used to achieve this goal. The opinions of 398 faculty members working in six universities in Türkiye were collected via the survey method.

Results – The results showed that the faculty members’ psychological empowerment had a favorable effect on their levels of change orientation and a negative effect on their levels of learning inertia. Additionally, it was shown that the faculty members’ psychological empowerment had little effect on their experiential inertia. Additionally, there was no discernible relationship between degrees of faculty members’ change orientation and perceived knowledge inertia (learning and experience).

Conclusion – The study’s results imply that faculty members who see their jobs as meaningful have sufficient knowledge about their jobs, are responsible for making decisions about their jobs, and accept change easily. It was also concluded that these faculty members have high levels of change orientation.

Keywords: psychological empowerment, change orientation, knowledge inertia, faculty member



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