Volume 11 Issue 2 (2022)

The Development of Competences in Teaching Practicum: Perspective of School Mentors as Assessors

pp. 7-25  |  Published Online: June 2022  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2022.112.1

Inmaculada Rodríguez, María-Luisa Barceló, Belén Poveda, Ernesto López-Gómez


Background/purpose – This paper aims to examine school mentors’ assessments on the degree of competences developed by preservice (candidate) teachers they supervise during teaching practicum (TP).

Materials/methods – A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted with a questionnaire applied to 373 school mentors for the evaluation of competences of 989 preservice teachers studying Early Childhood Education or Primary Education degrees at the end of three TP periods conducted in schools located in one region of Spain.

Results – From the perspective of school mentors, this study highlights that preservice teachers’ competences are progressively developed during periods of TP in teacher education. The results show a more positive assessment of the school mentors about the development of the preservice teachers’ personal competences than their professional competences.

Conclusion – The main contribution of this study is the innovative approach applied to competence development in the TP, based on school mentors as the assessors.

Keywords: teacher practicum, preservice teacher training, practicum supervision, teacher education, school mentor


Intellectual Level Scale (ILS-19) for School Administrators: Validity and Reliability Study

pp. 26-43  |  Published Online: June 2022  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2022.112.2

Abdurrahman Kardas, Bilal Yildirim


Background/purpose – In addition to many competencies of school administrators, the level of intellectuality can increase the commitment of educational actors to the organization in schools with sociocultural diversity, which is considered as a wealth of Turkey. Considering the sociocultural developments of the present day, it is important to know the intellectual level of school administrators. The aim of this research is to develop a valid and reliable scale to determine the intellectual level of school administrators.

Materials/methods – In the development of the Intellectual Level Scale (ILS-19), which consists of 19 items, 500 data were collected from teachers and analyzed using IBM’s SPSS statistical program. In this context, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted for construct validity and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for construct verification.

Results – According to the results of the exploratory factor analysis, the Eigen value of the scale consists of two subdimensions greater than one, and which was found to explain 66.743% of the total variance. The factor loading values of the scale items ranged from 0.610 to 0.864. According to the results of the confirmatory factor analysis, the chi-square value, AGFI (Adjusted Goodness-of-Fit Index), GFI (Goodness-of-Fit Index), NFI (Normed Fit Index), and RMSEA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation) values of the model were found to be at an acceptable level, whilst the IFI (Incremental Fit Index) excellent and RMR (Root Mean Square Residual) values were found to be at an excellent level.

Conclusion – The developed Intellectual Level Scale is a measurement tool that can be used to determine the intellectual level of school administrators. Subject to adaptation, the scale may be applied as a measurement tool in studies to determine the intellectual level of any adult group.

Keywords: Intellectual level scale, school administrator, teacher, scale development


Assessing Algorithmic Thinking Skills in Relation to Gender in Early Childhood

pp. 44-59  |  Published Online: June 2022  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2022.112.3

Kalliopi Kanaki, Michail Kalogiannakis


Background/purpose – In terms of computational thinking core facets, algorithmic thinking is a key competency applicable not only in Computer Science but also in aspects of daily life. Considering the global phenomenon of gender stereotypes with regards to the academic and professional orientation in STEM fields, we focused on investigating the level of students’ algorithmic thinking skills by gender in early childhood. This article provides evidence of research implemented under the umbrella of quantitative methodology, employing an innovative assessment tool constructed to meet the requirements of the study. The findings obtained could facilitate researchers and policymakers to support equity in learning opportunities, starting from the first stage of compulsory education.

Materials/methods – The study aligns to the principles of quantitative research methodology. Its backbone is a digital platform of multidisciplinary, play-based, and constructivist character, which we implemented from scratch in order to satisfy the requirements of our research.

Results – The findings of the study revealed that algorithmic thinking skills are not related to students’ gender in early childhood.

Conclusion – The findings of the study bring out that, at very young ages, the effect of gender stereotypes is not observable as far as students’ algorithmic thinking skills are concerned. The implications of the study highlight the need to focus on the schooling stages that follow early childhood in order to tackle the gender gap in STEM fields.

Keywords: computational thinking, algorithmic thinking, gender, early childhood, game-based learning


The Precarization of Educational Labor: The Examination of Teachers’ Job Insecurity Perceptions

pp. 60-95  |  Published Online: June 2022  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2022.112.4

Ibrahim Colak, Yahya Altinkurt


Background/purpose – In this study, the precarization of educational labor was identified in terms of teachers’ job insecurity perceptions. The purpose of the study was to examine the job insecurity perceptions of teachers with permanent, fixed-term, or temporary contracts.

Materials/methods – Multiple case design was used in the study. The data of the study were collected from 30 teachers through semi-structured interviews and from 432 teachers using the Teachers’ Job Insecurity Scale, which was developed within the scope of the study. Thematic analysis, descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Sidak test, and clustering analysis were used in the analysis of the obtained data.

Results – The study’s results revealed that teachers perceived intense explicit and implicit job insecurity. Clustering analyses showed that 69% of the participants perceived moderate and high levels of both explicit and implicit job insecurity, whereas 73% perceived moderate and high levels of general job insecurity. Job insecurity had social, psychological, and educational effects. Justification of insecurity, instrumental use of power against job insecurity, acquiescence of job insecurity, and acceptance of job insecurity caused structuration of job insecurity.

Conclusion – The study’s findings indicate that all teachers should be employed on a permanent contractual basis in order to reduce their perceptions of job insecurity and its effects. The autonomy of teachers within the teaching process should be increased, their employment benefits improved, and they should be economically empowered.

Keywords: precarization, job insecurity, educational labor, teacher


Did Home-Based Exams during COVID-19 Affect Student Ranking? A Case from a Business School

pp. 96-113  |  Published Online: June 2022  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2022.112.5

Leiv Opstad, Ivar Pettersen


Background/purpose – Home-based exams were introduced during COVID-19 with an open-book format and limited control over dishonest student behavior. Such exams were used in lieu of traditional, closed-book school-based exams as a necessity due to the pandemic. This article investigates whether or not students’ grades from home-based assessment exams differed from the grades they achieved in traditional school-based exams.

Materials/methods – Using administrative data from 2017 to 2020 from a business school in Norway, a quantitative approach that compared differences, correlation analysis, and regression models was applied in the study.

Results – By switching from school-based to home-based exams, students’ academic success during their second year of business school showed a smaller association with students’ outcomes from their first year. One interpretation is that skilled students achieved weaker performance in home-based exams.

Conclusion – Home-based exams without any control mechanisms appear to result in different student rankings. This knowledge may be useful for employers looking to hire applicants who graduated during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: COVID-19, home-based exam, business students, students’ performance


Examination of the Relationship between Childhood Trauma and Psychological Resilience in Preschool Teachers

pp. 114-129  |  Published Online: June 2022  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2022.112.6

Hatice Ozaslan, Rabia Seyma Gun, Gulumser Gultekin Akduman


Background/purpose – This paper investigated the relationship between childhood trauma and psychological resilience in preschool teachers. The study also determined whether psychological resilience depended on age.

Materials/methods – The study adopted a correlational survey model. The sample consisted of 268 preschool teachers. Data were collected using a demographic characteristics questionnaire named the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-33), and the Adult Resilience Measure (ARM-R).

Results – The study’s results showed that higher CTQ-33 emotional abuse, emotional neglect, sexual abuse, and total CTQ-33 subscale scores have correspondingly lower ARM-R total and subscale scores. The results also showed that higher physical abuse, physical neglect, and overprotection–overcontrol subscale scores have correspondingly lower ARM-R relational resources, personal resources, and familial resources subscale and total ARM-R scores. There was no correlation found between the CTQ-33 physical abuse, physical neglect, and overprotection–overcontrol subscale scores and the ARM-R cultural and contextual resources subscale scores. The results showed that age did not affect the participants’ ARM-R subscale or total scores.

Conclusion – The study’s results revealed a negative correlation between childhood trauma and psychological resilience. Age did not affect psychological resilience levels.

Keywords: childhood trauma, psychological resilience, preschool teacher


Construction of a Web Game for the Teaching-Learning Process of Electronics during the COVID-19 Pandemic

pp. 130-146  |  Published Online: June 2022  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2022.112.7

Ricardo-Adán Salas-Rueda, Clara Alvarado-Zamorano, Jesús Ramírez-Ortega


Background/purpose – During the COVID-19 pandemic, teachers were required to update school activities using various technological tools. The aim of this mixed research was the construction and usage analysis of the Digital Game for the teaching-learning process on Electronics (DGE) version 3.0 in the Combinational Circuits unit through data science.

Materials/methods – DGE version 3.0 facilitates the construction of new educational spaces in the distance modality. This web game consists of a simulator that presents the contents of the output function for two variables and their representation through logic gates. The participants of the study were 15 electronic and electrical engineering students who took a digital design course at the National Autonomous University of Mexico during the 2021 academic year.

Results – The machine learning (linear regression) results indicate that the interface, design, and color of the DGE version 3.0 web game positively influenced the students’ assimilation of knowledge and skills development in the field of electronics. On the other hand, the decision tree technique identified six predictive models with regards to the use of the DGE version 3.0.

Conclusion – Technological advances such as web gaming can facilitate the teaching-learning process from virtually any location.

Keywords: web game, higher education, data science, engineering, learning, ICT


Analyzing the Mediating Effect of Psychological Resilience on the Relationship between COVID-19 Fear and Happiness

pp. 147-166  |  Published Online: June 2022  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2022.112.8

Ramazan Yirci, Erkan Hasan Atalmis, Gulseda Kirisci


Background/purpose – Psychological resilience is considered a factor that can support teachers’ adaptation to rapidly changing situations such as COVID-19, and in turn help to reduce the fear they may experience.  The current study aims to examine the effect of COVID-19 fear on happiness through the mediating effect of psychological resilience based on teachers' perceptions.

Materials/methods – The study was designed according to the relational survey model, and was conducted with the participation of 346 teachers. Research data were collected through online surveys. The study used the Sobel, Aroian, and Goodman tests to test the significance of the effect of the mediator variables between the dependent and independent variables

Results – The results of the study showed that teachers’ fear of COVID-19 significantly affected their happiness level. However, it was found that fear related to COVID-19 significantly predicted resilience and teachers’ resilience level had a significant effect on their happiness.

Conclusion – Fear and resilience associated with COVID-19 have a significant impact on happiness. In addition, psychological resilience was found to have a mediating effect on the relationship between fear and happiness associated with COVID-19. The findings of this study will lead the other researchers to expand their studies to assess other behavioral variables, such as apathy and depression that might influence the relationship between fear of covid, resilience and happiness.

Keywords: COVID-19, pandemic, psychological resilience, COVID-19 fear, happiness


Learner Engagement in Using Kahoot! within a University English Proficiency Course

pp. 167-180  |  Published Online: June 2022  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2022.112.9

Mohd Zulfadli Mat Husin, Ruhil Amal Azmuddin


Background/purpose – Game-based learning is becoming increasingly popular among educators in higher institutions. However, it can be a daunting task for educators to ascertain which of the currently available game-based learning platforms best suits their learners’ needs. This study explored the suitability of Kahoot! as one of the most commonly used game-based learning platforms in education. The aim of study was to determine whether Kahoot! can be used to engage learners and reinforce learning for academic purposes in higher education institutions.

Materials/methods – Data were collected among 80 science and technology undergraduate students enrolled to an “English for Academic Communication” course, which is compulsory for English language proficiency at the participant university. The students were exposed to the use of Kahoot! through several predetermined quizzes conducted during their lessons over a single 14-week semester. The study employed a two-part, 24-item, Likert-type scale administered via Google Forms. The questionnaire was assessed using Cronbach alpha reliability analysis, which yielded a score of .97, confirming the questionnaire to be a reliable instrument.

Results – The study’s findings revealed that the participant students found Kahoot! to be fun, enjoyable, engaging, and interesting to use.

Conclusion – The participant students also believed that Kahoot! was able to consolidate and reinforce learning in academic courses, which is integral to the higher education context in terms of creating better classroom dynamics.

Keywords: Kahoot!, learner engagement, game-based learning, English for academic purposes, higher education



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