Volume 12 Issue 3 (2023)

Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Virtual Teaching During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia: The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction

pp. 56-78  |  Published Online: July 2023  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2023.123.3

Sultoni, Imam Gunawan


Background/purpose – The rapid transition to virtual teaching (VT) due to COVID-19-related school closures posed challenges to teachers in regard to upholding the standards of their profession. Perceived transformational leadership of virtual teaching (perceived TL-VT) may have had a protective role in difficult circumstances. Hence, this research study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived TL-VT and organizational citizenship behavior of virtual teaching (OCB-VT) in Indonesia, with job satisfaction of virtual teaching (JS-VT) as a mediator.

Materials/methods – A cross-sectional survey design was used in this study, in which data were collected from a sample of teachers at 40 elementary schools in Blitar District, Indonesia. A total of 418 teachers with VT experience completed survey with items adapted from related scales. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. Moreover, the mediation effect was evaluated using Hayes Process of Model 4. Finally, Hayes (2013) bootstrap technique was used to investigate the significance of the mediation effect.

Results – Perceived TL-VT and JS-VT were found to be positively associated with OCB-VT. Mediation tests confirmed the relationship between perceived TL-VT and OCB-VT was mediated by JS-VT. Moreover, bootstrap analysis showed that coworkers had the most significant mediating effect on the relationship between perceived TL-VT and OCB-VT, followed by promotion, supervision, and work, while the effect of pay was shown to be insignificant.

Conclusion – It was found that JS-VT had a mediating role in the relationship between perceived TL-VT and OCB-VT. Therefore, a good principal leadership could be critical to maintaining both teacher satisfaction and behavior during the COVID-19 crisis, regardless of teachers’ actual readiness to overcome barriers associated with virtual teaching.

Keywords: perceived transformational leadership, organizational citizenship behavior, job satisfaction, virtual teaching, Indonesian teachers.


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