Metacognitive Online Reading Strategies among Pre-Service EFL Teachers in Indonesia
pp. 151-164 | Published Online: June 2018 | DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2018.72.5
The study aimed to establish the metacognitive online reading strategies used by pre-service EFL teachers and to describe their experiences in employing the strategies. This mixed-methods study employed 65 participants (n = 65). The data were collected by using Online Survey of Reading Strategies (OSORS), as developed by Anderson (2003), and through a semi-structured interview. The findings showed that the subscale Global Reading Strategies (GLOB) was employed most frequently, followed by Problem Solving Strategies (SOLV) and then Support Strategies (SUPP). The most frequent levels of strategies included guessing the contents, scrolling through the texts, associating schemata and current information, using context clues, using tables or pictures, pausing and thinking about the contents, using printed texts, and translating the contents into Indonesian. The interview also reported that the strategies employed were focusing on simplified texts, focusing on colorful texts, translating texts into Indonesian, reading for fun, and utilizing schemata. In short, various strategies can be employed to comprehend and increase better understanding of the online texts.
Keywords: metacognition, online reading strategies, English as a foreign languageReferences
Ajayi, T., Ekundayo, H., & Arogundade, B. B. (2009). Parents’ involvement in school administration as a correlate of effectiveness of secondary schools in Nigeria. Journal of Education Administration and Policy Studies, 1(3), 41-46.
Ackerman, R., & Goldsmith, M. (2011). Metacognitive regulation of text learning: On screen versus on paper. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 17(1), 18-32.
Akyel, A., & Ercetin, G. (2009). Hypermedia reading strategies employed by advanced learners of English. System, 37(1), 136-152.
Anastasiou, D., & Griva, E. (2009). Awareness of reading strategy use and reading comprehension among poor and good learners. Elementary Education Online, 8(2), 283-297.
Anderson, N. J. (2003). Scrolling, clicking, and reading English: Online reading strategies in a second foreign language. The Reading Matrix, 3(3). Retrieved from http://www.readingmatrix.com/articles/anderson/article.pdf.
Babbie, E. (2011). The Basics of Social Research (5th ed.). Wadsworth: Cengage Learning.
Balajthy, E. (1990). Hypertext, hypermedia, and metacognition: Research and instructional implications for disabled readers. Journal of Reading, Writing, and Learning Disabilities International, 6(2), 183-202.
Bernhardt, E. B. (1991). Reading Development in a Second Language: Theoretical, Empirical, & Classroom Perspectives. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing.
Bolanos, E. (2012). A comparison of the reading strategies used by good readers in print and hypertext environments: implications and recommendations for the improvement of reading instructions. TESOL Journal, 7, 2-9.
Bowden, C., & Galindo-Gonzalez, S. (2015). Interviewing when you’re not face-to-face: The use of email interviews in a phenomenological study. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 10, 79-92.
Carrell, P., & Floyd, P. (1987). Effects on ESL reading of teaching cultural content schemata. Language Learning, 37(1), 89-108.
Castek, J., Zawilinski, L., McVerry, J. G., O’Byrne, W. I., & Leuet, D. J. (2011). The new literacies of online reading comprehension: New opportunities and challenges for students with learning difficulties. In C. Wyatt-Smith, J. Elkins, & S. Gunn (Eds.), Multiple perspectives on difficulties in learning literacy and numeracy (pp. 91-110). New York, NY: Springer.
Chen, K. T.-C., & Chen, S. C.-L. (2015). The Use of EFL Reading Strategies among High School Students in Taiwan. The Reading Matrix, 15(2), 156-166.
Choy, S. C., & Lee, M. Y. (2012). Effects of Teaching Paraphrasing Skills to Students Learning Summary Writing in ESL. Journal of Teaching and Learning, 8(2), 77-89.
Coiro, J. (2007). Exploring Changes to Reading Comprehension on the Internet: Paradoxes and Possibilities for Diverse Adolescent Readers (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation). University of Connecticut.
Coiro, J. (2012). The new literacies of online reading comprehension: Future directions. Educational Forum, 76(4), 412-417.
Coiro, J., & Dobler, E. (2007). Exploring the online reading comprehension strategies used by sixth-grade skilled readers to search for and locate information on the Internet. Reading Research Quarterly. 42(2), 214-257.
Coiro, J., Knobel, M., Lankshear, C., & Leu, D. J. (2008). Central issues in new literacies and new literacies research. In J. Coiro, M. Knobel, C. Lankshear, & D. J. Leu (Eds.), Handbook of research in new literacies (pp. 1-21). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4th ed). California: Sage.
Cummins, S., & Gerard, C. S. (2011). Teaching for Synthesis of Informational Texts With Read-Alouds. The Reading Teacher, 64(6), 394-405.
Dreher, M. J. (1993). Reading to Locate Information: Societal and Educational Perspectives. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 18(2), 129-138.
Duke, N. K., & Pearson, P. D. (2002). Effective practices for developing reading comprehension. In A. E. Farstrup & S. J. Samuels (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction (3rd ed., pp. 205-242). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Fatemi, A. H., & Vahedi, V. S. (2014). The Effects of Top-down/Bottom-up Processing and Field-dependent/Field-independent Cognitive Style on Iranian EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 4(4), 686-693.
Guthrie, J. T., & Wigfield, A. (1999). How motivation fits into a science of reading. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3(3), 199-205.
Henry, L. A. (2006). Searching for an answer: the critical role of new literacies while reading on the Internet. Reading Teachers, 59(7), 614-627.
Huang, H.-C., Chern, C.-L., & Lin, C.-C. (2009). EFL learners’ use of online reading strategies and comprehension of texts: An exploratory study. Computers & Education, 52(1), 13-26.
Huang, Y.-H. (2012). Designing task-oriented online reading activities: Taiwanese EFL students’ experiences and views on online EFL reading activities. Proceedings of First Extensive Reading World Congress (pp. 4-7). Tokyo: Japan Association for Language Teaching.
Hudson, T. (2007). Teaching second language reading. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Ikeda, M., & Takeuchi, O. (2006). Clarifying the differences in learning EFL reading strategies: An analysis of portfolios. System, 34(3), 384-398.
Jaengsaengthong, W. (2007). The study of online reading strategies of graduate students majoring in English at Naresuan University (Unpublished Master’s thesis). Naresuan University.
Johnson, R. B., Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Turner, L. A. (2007). Toward a definition of mixed methods research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(2), 112-133.
Kingsley, T., & Tancock, S. (2014). Internet inquiry: Fundamental competencies for online comprehension. The Reading Teacher, 67(5), 389-399.
Kurby, C. A., Britt, M. A., & Magliano, J. P. (2005). The role of top-down and bottom-up processes in between-text integration. Reading Psychology, 26(4-5), 335-362.
Kvale, S., & Brinkmann, S. (2009). Interviews: Learning the Craft of Qualitative Research Interviewing. Los Angeles, California: Sage.
Leonardi, V. (2010). The role of pedagogical translation in second language acquisition: From theory to practice. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang.
Leu, D. J., Jr., Kinzer, C. K., Coiro, J. L., & Cammack, D. W. (2004). Toward a theory of new literacies emerging from Internet and other information and communication technologies. In R. B. Ruddell & N. Unrau (Eds.), Theoretical models and process of reading (5th ed., pp. 1570-1613). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Leu, D. J., Kinzer, C. K., Coiro, J., Castek, J., & Henry, L. A. (2013). New literacies: A dual level theory of the changing nature of literacy, instruction, and assessment. In N. Unrau & D. Alvermann (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (6th ed., pp. 1150-1181). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Leu, D. J., McVerry, J. G., O’Byrne, W. I., Kiili, C., Zawilinski, L., Everett-Cacopardo,… Forzani, E. (2011). The New Literacies of Online Reading Comprehension: Expanding the Literacy and Learning Curriculum. The Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 55(1), 5-14.
Lodico, M. G., Spaulding, D. T., & Voegtle, K. H. (2006). Methods in Educational Research: From Theory to Practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Mistar, J., Zuhairi, A., & Yanti, N. (2016). Strategies in the teaching of reading comprehension for EFL learners in Indonesia. English Language Teaching, 9(2), 49-56.
Mokhtari, K., & Sheorey, R. (2002). Measuring ESL students’ awareness of reading strategies. Journal of Developmental Education, 25(3), 2-10.
Mokhtari, K., & Sheorey, R. (2008). Reading strategies of first- and second-language learners: See how they read. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers.
Nuttall, C. (1996). Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language. Oxford: Heinemann.
Packer, M. (2011). The science of qualitative research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pang, J. (2008). Research on good and poor reader characteristics: Implications for L2 reading research in China. Reading in a Foreign Language, 20(1), 1-18.
Paris, S. C., Lipson, M. Y., & Wixson, K. K. (1983). Becoming a strategic reader. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, 293-316.
Paris, S., Wasik, B. A., & Turner, J. C. (1991). The development of strategic readers. In R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, & D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Research, Vol. 2 (pp. 609-640). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Pole, C., & Morrison, M. (2003). Ethnography for education. London: Open University Press.
Pookcharoen, S. (2007). Exploring how teaching morphemic analysis fosters Thai EFL students’ vocabulary development. Journal of English Studies, 3, 85-105.
Pressley, M., & Afflerbach, P. (1995). Verbal protocols of reading: The nature of constructively responsive reading. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Pressley, M., & McCormick, C. B. (1995). Cognition, Teaching, and Assessment. New York, NY: Harper Collins.
Raftari, S., Seyyedi, K., & Ismail, S. A. M. M. (2012). Reading strategy research around the world. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, 1(1), 24-30.
Schraw, G., & Bruning, R. (1999). How implicit models of reading affect motivation to read and reading engagement. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3(3), 281-302.
Sheorey, R., & Mokhtari, K. (2001). Differences in the global awareness of reading strategies among native and non-native readers. System, 29(4), 431-449.
Shih, M. (1992). Beyond comprehension exercises in the ESL academic reading class. TESOL Quarterly, 26(2), 289-318.
Singhal, M. (2001). Reading proficiency, reading strategies, metacognitive awareness and L2 readers. The Reading Matrix, 1(1), 1-23.
Tanner, M. J. (2014). Digital vs. Print: Reading Comprehension and the Future of the Book. SLIS Student Research Journal, 4(2).
Varshney, S., & Banerji, N. (2012). Language learning strategies for English (second language) teachers. Language in India, 12(2), 791-799.
Washbourne, K. (2012). Active, strategic reading for translation trainees: Foundations for transactional methods. Translation & Interpreting, 4(1), 38-55.
Zarrabi, S. (2015). Exploring Metacognitive Online Reading Strategies of Non-Native English-Speaking Translation Students (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation). University of San Francisco.