The Relationship between Teachers’ Occupational Professionalism and Organizational Alienation
pp. 31-44 | Published Online: November 2015 | DOI: 10.12973/edupij.2015.412.3
Yilmaz Ilker Yorulmaz, Yahya Altinkurt, Kursad Yilmaz
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between occupational professionalism and organizational alienation levels of teachers. The study is designed as a survey model. The sample of the study consists of 303 teachers working in the Mugla province of Turkey. Participants were selected by using the disproportionate cluster sampling technique. Data was collected through the application of the Teachers’ Occupational Professionalism Scale and the Work Alienation Scale. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA and correlation analyses were used to analyze the data. Based on the findings, the participant teachers’ level of occupational professionalism is high. Among the occupational professionalism dimensions, teachers consider they have professional awareness the most. This is followed by emotional labor, contribution to organization, and personal development. Teachers’ occupational professionalism differ according to gender and school type variables, while it does not differ according to seniority and time in service at the current school. The participant teachers’ organizational alienation is low. Among the alienation dimensions, teachers consider alienating the school the most, even if its level is low. This is followed respectively by powerlessness, isolation and meaninglessness dimensions. Teachers’ organizational alienation differs according to gender, school type, seniority and time in service at the current school variables. There are significant relationships between alienation and occupational professionalism levels of teachers.
Keywords: occupational professionalism, teacher, organizational alienation, professionalismReferences
Acikel, S. (2013). Elementary school teachers in study of the relationship between organizational culture and work alienation: Atasehir county case (Unpublished master’s thesis). Yeditepe University, Istanbul.
Adiguzel, O., Tanriverdi, H., & Sonmez-Ozkan, D. (2011). Occupational professionalism and the case of nurses as members of the profession. Journal of Administrative Sciences, 9(2), 237-259.
Altinkurt, Y., & Yilmaz, K. (2014). Relationship between occupational professionalism of teachers and their job satisfaction. Sakarya University Journal of Education, 4(2), 57-71.
Bayhan, G. (2011). The investigate of teacher professionalism (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Marmara University, Istanbul.
Benson, N., & Malone, P. (1987). Teachers’ beliefs about shared decision making and work alienation. Education, 107(3), 244-251.
Bottery, M. (1997). Teacher professionalization through action research-possibility or pipe‐dream? Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 3(2), 273-292.
Bourke, T., Lidstone, J., & Ryan, M. (2013). Schooling teachers: professionalism or disciplinary power? Educational Philosophy and Theory: Incorporating ACCESS, 47(1), 84-100.
Boz, M. (2014). Alienation and anger relation in educational organizations: Şişli technical and vocational high school (Unpublished master’s thesis). Bahcesehir University, Istanbul.
Buyukozturk, S. (2009). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitabı. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
Calisir, I. (2006). Teachers work alienation in elementary school: Bolu case (Unpublished master’s thesis). Abant İzzet Baysal University, Bolu.
Celep, B. (2008). Teachers work alienation in elementary school: Kocaeli case. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Kocaeli University, Kocaeli.
Cerit, Y. (2012). The relationship between bureaucratic school structure and classroom teachers’ professional behaviors. Educational Administration: Theory and Practice, 18(4), 497-521.
Dean, D. G. (1961). Alienation: its meaning and measurement. American Sociological Review, 26(5), 753-758.
Demirel, A. G., Otken, A. B., & Kunday, O. (2012). The role of support from colleagues in the relationship between mobbing and work alienation. Hacettepe Universitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakultesi Dergisi, 30(1), 1-28.
Dinger, M., Stepina, L., Thatcher, J., Breland, J., & Treadway, D. (2015). Does professionalism matter in the IT workforce? An empirical examination of IT professionals. Journal of Association for Information Systems, 16(4), 281-313.
Elma, C. (2003). Teachers work alienation in elementary schools: Ankara case (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Ankara University, Ankara.
Eryilmaz, A., & Burgaz, B. (2011). Levels of organizational alienation of private and public high school teachers. Education and Science, 36(161), 271-286.
Feuer, L. (1963). What is alienation? The career of a concept. Sociology on Trial. In M. Steinand & A. Vidich (Eds.), New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Flores, M. A., & Shiroma, E. (2003). Teacher professionalisation and professionalism in Portugal and Brazil: What do the policy documents tell? Journal of Education for Teaching: International research and pedagogy, 29(1), 5-18.
Freidson, E. (2001). Professionalism: the third logic. Oxford: Polity Press.
Fromm, E. (1992). Marx’ın insan anlayışı. (Kaan H. Ökten, Trans.). İstanbul: Arıtan Yayınevi.
Geist, J., & Hoy, W. K. (2004). Cultivating a culture of trust: Enabling school structure, teacher professionalism, and academic press. Leading and Managing, 10(1), 1-18.
Guven, D. (2010). Teaching as a profession: the case of Turkey. Bogazici Universitesi Egitim Dergisi, 27(2), 13-21.
Hirschfeld, R., & Feild, H. (2000). Work centrality and work alienation: distinct aspects of a general commitment to work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(7), 789-800.
Hoy, W. K. (1972). Dimensions of student alienation and characteristics of public high schools. Interchange, 3(4), 38-52.
Kanungo, R. N. (1990). Culture and work alienation: Western models and eastern realities. International Journal of Psychology, 2(3-6), 795-812.
Kesik, F., & Comert, M. (2014). Ilkogretim okullarında gorev yapan ogretmenlerin ise yabancilasma duzeylerine iliskin algilari. Inonu University Journal of Faculty of Education, 15(1), 27-46.
Kilcik, F. (2011). Elementary school teachers’ perceptions about their work alienation levels: the case of Malatya (Unpublished master’s thesis). Inonu University, Malatya.
Kohn, M. L. (1976). Occupational structure and alienation. American Sociological Review, 82(1), 111-130.
Korkmaz, H. (2014). The relationship between work alienation and organizational commitment of the public high school teachers (Unpublished master’s thesis). Bahcesehir University, Istanbul.
McMahon, E., & Hoy, W. K. (2009). Professionalism in teaching: Toward a structural theory of professionalism. In W. K. Hoy & M. Dipaola (Eds.), Studies in school improvement (pp.205-230). Greenwich, CN: Information Age.
Nicol, A. A. M., & Rounding, K. (2014). The moderating role of alienation on the relation between social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism, and person-organization fit. Psychological Reports: Employment Psychology & Marketing, 115(3), 710-724.
Noordin, F., Rashid, R. M., Ghani, R., Aripin, R., & Darus, Z. (2010). Teacher professionalisation and organisational commitment: evidence from Malaysia. International Business & Economics Research Journal, 9(2), 49-58.
Okas, A., Schaaf, M., & Krull, E. (2014). Novice and experienced teachers’ views on professionalism. Trames, 18(4), 327-344.
Ozler, N. D., & Dirican, M. (2014). A research in order to determine the relationship between alienation and burnout syndrome in the organization. Dumlupinar University, Journal of Social Sciences, 39, 291-309.
Pappenheim, F. (2002). Modern Insanin Yabancilasmasi: Marx’a ve Tonnies’ye Dayali Bir Yorum. (Salih Ak, Trans.). Ankara: Phoneix Yayinevi.
Pearson, L. C., & Moomaw, W. (2005). The relationship between teacher autonomy and stress, work satisfaction, empowerment, and professionalism. Educational Research Quarterly, 29(1), 38-54.
Sarros, J. C., Tanewski, G. A., Winter, R. P., Santora, J. C., & Densten, I. L. (2002). Work alienation and organizational leadership. British Journal of Management, 13(4), 285-304.
Seeman, M. (1959). On the meaning of alienation. American Sociological Review, 24(6), 783-791.
Shantz, A., Alfes, K., & Truss, C. (2014). Alienation from work: Marxist ideologies and twenty-first-century practice. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(18), 2529-2550.
Simsek, H. (1997). 21. Yuzyilin esiginde paradigmalar savasi: Kaostaki Turkiye. Istanbul: Sistem Yayincilik.
Simsek, H., Balay, R., & Simsek, A. S. (2012). Alienation from work of elementary school teachers. Journal of Educational Sciences Research, 2(1), 53-72.
Sirin, F. (2010). The search of physical education teachers work alienation level according to some variables. Journal of CBU Physical Education and Sport, 4(4), 164-177.
Talbert, J. E., & McLaughlin, M. W. (1994). Teacher professionalism in local school contexts. American Journal of Education, 102(2), 123-153.
TDK (2014). Turk Dil Kurumu Guncel Turkce Sozluk.
Toh, K., Diong, C., Boo, H., & Chia, S. (1996). Determinants of teacher professionalism. British Journal of In-service Education, 22(2), 231-244.
Tschannen-Moran, M. (2009). Fostering teacher professionalism in schools: the role of leadership orientation and trust. Educational Administration Quarterly, 45(2), 217-247.
Turan, M., & Parsak, G. (2011). The relationship between job satisfaction and alienation: a research on a state university administrative personnel. Journal of Cukurova University Institute of Social Sciences, 2(2), 1-20.
Uzun, S., Palic, G., & Akdeniz, A. R. (2013). Science and technology teachers’ perceptions of professional teacher. Journal of Buca Educational Sciences Faculty, 35, 127-143.
Vallas, S. P. (1987). White-collar proletarians? The structure of clerical work and levels of class consciousness. Sociological Quarterly, 28(4), 523-540.
Weisskopf, W. A. (1996). Yabancilasma ve iktisat. Oya Koymen (Ed.), Istanbul: Anahtar Kitaplari.
Yildiz, K., Akgun, N., & Yildiz, S. (2013). The relationship between work alienation and organizational cynicism. The Journal of Academic Social Science Studies, 6(6), 1253-1284.
Yilmaz, K., & Altinkurt, Y. (2014). Validity and reliability study for the occupational professionalism of teachers scale (OPTS). International Journal of Human Sciences, 11(2), 332-345.
Yilmaz, K., Altinkurt, Y., Guner, M., & Sen, B. (2015). The relationship between teachers’ emotional labor and burnout level. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 59, 75-90.
EDUPIJ is indexed in ERIC now.
►EDUPIJ is included in The Philosopher’s Index (Coverage: Volume 5, 2016 & forward).
The Philosopher’s Index is the premiere bibliographic database covering worldwide research in all subject areas of philosophy.
Thank you so much to the editorial board members, authors and reviewers for their contribution to Educational Process: International Journal.