Volume 6 Issue 1 (2017)

Validity and Reliability Study: Values Scale for Secondary School Students (VSS)

pp. 85-95  |  Published Online: March 2017  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2017.61.5

Didem Cetin, Mustafa Volkan Coskun


The purpose of the current study is to develop a data collection tool that can be used to determine the values of secondary school students. The study group consists of 299 students attending secondary schools in the city of Mugla, Turkey, who voluntarily participated in the study. For the construct validity of the scale, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. As a result of the exploratory factor analysis (EFA), a three-factor structure was elicited for the factors of “Sensitivity”, “Trustability”, and “Responsibility”. This three-factor structure together explains 41.11% of the total variance. The scale comprises of 30 items that can be assigned scores ranging from “1 (Never)” to “4 (Always)”. When the findings obtained through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were evaluated, χ2/df ratio was found to be 2.93. The 30-item, three-factor structure obtained as a result of EFA was also examined using CFA and the results showed that the scale yields good fit values. For the trustability of the scale, item-total correlation and Cronbach’s Alpha internal consistency coefficient were analyzed. In conclusion, a valid and reliable scale with adequate psychometric features was developed in order to determine the values of secondary school students (VSS).

Keywords: values scale, validity and reliability study, secondary school students


Arce, W. (2001). Values, organizational culture and organizations. Loyola Schools Review, 1, 181-192.

Ates, F. (2013). It's qualitative study including opinions of the primary and secondary school teachers about training of values and its implementations (Unpublished master’s thesis). Yeditepe University, Istanbul.

Aydin, M. (2003). Youth’s values perception: Konya sample. Journal of Values Education, 1(3), 121-144.

Buyukozturk, S. (2009). Sosyal bilimler icin veri analizi el kitabı. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.

Caliskan, H., & Saglam, H. I. (2012). A study on development of the tendency to tolerances scale and analysis of the tendencies of primary school students to tolerance through certain variables.Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 12(2), 1431-1445.

Cengelci, T. (2010). A case study regarding values education in the fifth grade social studies course in primary education (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Anadolu University, Eskisehir.

Cevizci, A. (2010). Felsefe tarihi. Istanbul: Say.

Cokluk, O., Sekercioglu, G., & Buyukozturk, S. (2010). Sosyal bilimler icin cok degiskenli istatistik. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.

Coskun Keskin, S. (2012). What does value evoke for children? A detection study as to transferring values to daily life. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 12(2), 1506-1512.

Dilmac, B., Bozgeyikli, H., & Cıkılı, Y. (2008). The investigation of teacher candidates’ value perceptions in terms of various variables. Journal of Values Education, 6(16), 69-91.

Donmezer, S. (1994). Toplumbilim. Istanbul: Beta.

Eksi, H. (2003). Character education programs: an approach for acquiring core human values. Journal of Values Education, 1(1), 79-96.

Erdem, A. R. (2003). An important factor in university culture: values. Journal of Values Education, 1(4), 55-72.

Gungor, E. (1998). Degerler psikolojisi uzerinde arastırmalar. Istanbul: Otuken.

Guven, A. Z. (2015). The views of Turkish teacher candidates on value and value education. International Journal of Languages’ Education and Teaching, 3(3), 11-27.

Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations. London: Harper Collins Business.

Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55.

Joreskog, K. G., & Sorbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8: Structural equation modeling with the SIMPLIS command language. Lincolnwood: Scientific Software International Inc.

Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling: a researcher’s guide. London: Sage.

Kucuradi, I. (2013). İnsan ve degerleri. Ankara: Turkiye Felsefe Kurumu.

Kurtulmus, M., Tosten, R., & Gundas, A. (2014). The problems encountered by the first stage elementary school teachers in the process of value education. Journal of Values Education, 12(27), 281-299.

Leech, N. L., Barrett, K. C., & Morgan, G. A. (2005). SPSS for Intermediate Statistics: Use and Interpretation. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Ogretici, B. (2011). Research of the effectuality of implementations towards the education of values in social studies lessons of the primary education 6th grade (Unpublished master’s thesis). Sakarya University, Sakarya.

Ozdamar, K. (2004). Paket programlar ile istatiksel veri analizi II. Eskisehir: Kaan.

Ozkaya, P. G., & Coskun, M. V. (2015). Turkce ogretmeni adaylarının kisilerarası iliskileri etkileyen deger eksiklikleri ile ilgili gorusleri. In M. V. Coskun, N. A. Onkas, N. I. Egilmez, H. Fırat,….H. Celik (Eds.), Turkcenin egitimi-ogretimine yonelik calısmalar  (pp. 372-377). Ankara: Pegem Akademi.

Pethia, R. F. (1970). Values in positive and normative administrative theory: a conceptual framework and logical analysis. In S. M. Wortman & F. Luthans (Eds.), Emerging concepts in management (pp. 10-25). London: The Macmillan Company.

Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of the human values. New York: The Free Press.

Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Muller, H., (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Test of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research - Online, 8(2), 23-74.

Schwartz, S. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values. Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 1-65). San Diego: Academic Press.

Schwartz, S. H., & Boehnke, K. (2004). Evaluating the structure of human values with confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of Research in Personality, 38(3), 230-255.

Schwartz, S. H., & Sagie, G. (2000). Value consensus and importance: a cross-national study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31(4), 465-497.

Silah, M. (2000). Sosyal psikoloji: davranıs bilimi. Ankara: Gazi.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidel, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Tavsancil, E. (2005). Tutumların olculmesi ve SPSS ile veri analizi. Ankara: Nobel.

Yazar, T. (2012). Opinions of the prospective teachers about values. Pegem Education and Instruction Journal, 2(1), 61-68.

Yesil, R., & Aydin, D. (2007). The method and timing in democratic values education. Turkish Journal of Social Research, 11(2), 65-84.

Yilmaz, K. (2008). Egitim yonetiminde degerler. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.


EDUPIJ is indexed in ERIC now.

We are delighted to announce that Educational Process: International Journal has been included in ERIC - Education Resources Information Center (Coverage: Volume 8, 2019 & forward).


EDUPIJ is included in The Philosopher’s Index (Coverage: Volume 5, 2016 & forward).

The Philosopher’s Index is the premiere bibliographic database covering worldwide research in all subject areas of philosophy.

Thank you so much to the editorial board members, authors and reviewers for their contribution to Educational Process: International Journal.