Volume 12 Issue 2 (2023)

How Psychological Empowerment Influences Faculty Members’ Change Orientation: Does Knowledge Inertia Have a Mediating Role?

pp. 124-143  |  Published Online: May 2023  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2023.122.8

Muslim Alanoglu, Songül Karabatak


Background/purpose – This study aims to determine the effect of faculty members’ psychological empowerment on their change orientation and the mediating role of knowledge inertia (learning and experience) in this effect.

Materials/methods – A cross-sectional research design was used to achieve this goal. The opinions of 398 faculty members working in six universities in Türkiye were collected via the survey method.

Results – The results showed that the faculty members’ psychological empowerment had a favorable effect on their levels of change orientation and a negative effect on their levels of learning inertia. Additionally, it was shown that the faculty members’ psychological empowerment had little effect on their experiential inertia. Additionally, there was no discernible relationship between degrees of faculty members’ change orientation and perceived knowledge inertia (learning and experience).

Conclusion – The study’s results imply that faculty members who see their jobs as meaningful have sufficient knowledge about their jobs, are responsible for making decisions about their jobs, and accept change easily. It was also concluded that these faculty members have high levels of change orientation.

Keywords: psychological empowerment, change orientation, knowledge inertia, faculty member


Abbas, M., & Raja, U. (2015). Impact of psychological capital on innovative performance and job stress. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 32(2), 128-138. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjas.1314

Ahmad, H. (2012). Mission of public education in Malaysia: The challenge of transformation. University of Malaya Press.

Aksoy, I., & Tolay, E. (2019). The effects of psychological empowerment on susceptibility to change. Journal of Work Power, Industrial Relations and Human Resources, 21(2), 5-20.  https://doi.org/10.4026/isguc.563053

Altrichter, H. (2000). Introduction. In H. Altrichter, & J. Elliot (Eds.), Images of educational change (pp. 1-10). Open University Press.

Aqeela, M. S. F., & Victor, L. D. (2017). Impact of knowledge inertia on organizational innovation (mediating role of organizational learning). Journal for Studies in Management and Planning, 3(2), 164-174. https://journals.eduindex.org/index.php/jsmap/article/view/2738

Baird, K., & Wang, H. (2010). Employee empowerment: Extent of adoption and influential factors. Personnel Review, 39(5), 574-599. https://doi.org/10.1108/00483481011064154

Bandura, A. (1986). The explanatory and predictive scope of self-efficacy theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 4(3), 359-373. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.1986.4.3.359

Bartram, T., & Casimir, G. (2007). The relationship between leadership and follower in-role performance and satisfaction with the leader. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 28(1), 4-19. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437730710718218

Berraies, S., Chaher, M., & Benyahia, K. (2014). Employee empowerment and its importance for trust, innovation and organizational performance. Business Management and Strategy, 5(2), 82-103. https://doi.org/10.5296/bms.v5i2.6558

Beycioglu, K., & Aslan, M. (2010). Change and innovation as main dynamics in school development: Administrators and teachers’ roles. Yüzüncü Yıl University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 7(1), 153-173. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/yyuefd/issue/13709/165985

Boyce, J., & Bowers, A. J. (2018). Different levels of leadership for learning: Investigating differences between teachers individually and collectively using multilevel factor analysis of the 2011–2012 Schools and Staffing Survey. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 21(2), 197–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13603124.2016.1139187

Celik, K., & Gencer, M. (2019). The effect of teachers’ perceptions of organizational trust on their attitudes towards change. Trakya Journal of Education, 9(1), 108-124. https://doi.org/10.24315/tred.454523

Cunningham, G. B. (2006). The relationships among commitment to change, coping with change, and turnover intentions. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 15(1), 29-45. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320500418766

Darling-Hammond, L., Wei, R. C., Andree, A., Richardson, N., & Orphanos, S. (2009). Professional learning in the learning profession: A status report on teacher development in the United States and abroad. National Staff Development Council.

Demirtas, H. (2012). Primary schools’ openness to change. Elementary Education Online 77(1), 18-34. https://www.ilkogretim-online.org/?mno=123059

Doll, W. J., Deng, X., & Metts, G. A. (2005). User empowerment in virtual knowledge work. Workshop Papers. The University of Toledo.

Eroglu, S. G., & Alga, E. (2019). The relationship between openness to organizational change and organizational inertia of university employees. Atatürk University Journal of Graduate School of Social Sciences, 23(3), 1251-1271. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ataunisosbil/issue/49603/589742

Erwin, D. G., & Garman, A. N. (2010). Resistance to organizational change: linking research and practice. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31(1), 39-56. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437731011010371

Fang, C.-H., Chang, S.-T., & Chen, G.-L. (2011). Organizational learning capability and organizational innovation: The moderating role of knowledge inertia. African Journal of Business Management, 5(5), 1864-1870. https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJBM/article-abstract/3BF2A4421312

Feiz, D., Dehghani Soltani, M., & Farsizadeh, H. (2019). The effect of knowledge sharing on the psychological empowerment in higher education mediated by organizational memory. Studies in Higher Education, 44(1), 3-19. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2017.1328595

Fırın, S. (2021). Psikolojik güçlendirme, yenilikçi davraniş ve kişilik özellikleri [Psychological empowerment, innovative behavior, and personality traits]. Iksad.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 18(1), 39-50.

Foss, N. J. (2011). Why micro-foundations for resource-based theory are needed and what they may look like. Journal of Management, 37(5), 1413-1428. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206310390218

Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (2006). How to design and evaluate research in education. McGraw-Hill.

Fritz, M. S., & MacKinnon D. P. (2007). Required sample size to detect the mediated effect. Psychological Science, 18(3), 233-239. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01882.x

Gomez, C., & Rosen, B. (2001). The leader-member exchange as a link between managerial trust and employee empowerment. Group & Organization Management, 26(1), 53-69. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1177/1059601101261004

Gunduz, Y., & Balyer, A. (2013). Perceptions of the academicians about change and innovation at higher education institutions. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 12(43), 47-66.

Housewright, R., & Schonfeld, R. (2008). Ithaka’s 2006 studies of key stakeholders in the digital transformation of higher education. Ithaka.

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118

Huang, Y.-T., Liu, H., & Huang, L. (2020). How transformational and contingent reward leaderships influence university faculty’s organizational commitment: The mediating effect of psychological empowerment. Studies in Higher Education, 46(11), 2473-2490. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2020.1723534

Idris, A., See, D., & Coughlan, P. (2018). Employee empowerment and job satisfaction in urban Malaysia: Connecting the dots with context and organizational change management. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 31(3), 697-711. https://doi.org/10.1108/JOCM-04-2017-0155

Jafari, V., Moradi, M. A., & Ahanchi, M. (2013). An examination of the relationship between empowerment and organizational commitment (case study Kurdistan province electric staff). Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 4(12), 860-868. https://journal-archieves31.webs.com/860-868.pdf

Kareem, O., & Kin, T. M. (2018). Attitudes toward change: A comparison between senior assistants and teachers in Malaysian secondary schools. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(1), 249-265. http://dx.doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v8-i1/3806

Kearney, S., & Smith P. A. (2008). A theoretical and empirical analysis of change orientations in schools. In W. K. Hoy, & M. DiPaola (Eds.), Studies in school improvement (pp. 23-43). Information Age.

Klagge, J. (1998). The empowerment squeeze-views from the middle management position. Journal of Management Development, 17(8), 548-558. https://doi.org/10.1108/02621719810228407

Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford Press.

Liao, S.-H. (2002). Problem solving and knowledge inertia. Expert Systems with Applications, 22(1), 21-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0957-4174(01)00046-X

Liao, S.-H., Chang, J.-C., Cheng, S.-C., & Kuo, C.-M. (2004). Employee relationship and knowledge sharing: A case study of a Taiwanese finance and securities firm. Knowledge Management Research and Practice, 2(1), 24-34. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.kmrp.8500016

Liao, S.-H., Fei, W.-C., & Liu, C.-T. (2008). Relationships between knowledge inertia, organizational learning and organization innovation. Technovation, 28(4), 183-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2007.11.005

Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., & Sparrow, R. T. (2000). An examination of the mediating role of psychological empowerment on the relations between the job, interpersonal relationships, and work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(3), 407-416. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0021-9010.85.3.407

Mathieu, J. M., Gilson, L. L., & Ruddy, T. M. (2006). Empowerment and team effectiveness: An empirical test of an integrated model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(1), 97-108. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.1.97

Menon, S. T. (2001). Employee empowerment: An integrative psychological approach. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 50, 153-180. https://doi.org/10.1111/1464-0597.00052

Michael, L. A. H., Hou, S.-T., & Fan, H.-L. (2011). Creative self-efficacy and innovative behavior in a service setting: Optimism as a moderator. Journal of Creative Behavior, 45,258-272. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2162-6057.2011.tb01430.x

Nikpour, A. (2018). Psychological empowerment and organizational innovation: Mediating role of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 7, 106-119. http://dx.doi.org/10.33844/ijol.2018.60421

Omur, Y. E., & Sezgin-Nartgun, S. (2014). Faculty change orientation scale: Adaptation to Turkish language, validity and reliability. Educational Administration: Theory and Practice, 20(3), 307-326. https://doi.org/10.14527/kuey.2014.013

Oreg, S. (2003). Resistance to change: Developing an individual differences measure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(4), 587-604. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.4.680

Oreg, S. (2006). Personality, context, and resistance to organizational change. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 15(1), 73-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13594320500451247

Oreg, S., & Goldenberg, J. (2015). Resistance to innovation: Its sources and manifestations. University of Chicago Press.

Ozgenel, M., & Cetin, M. (2021). Effects of organizational cynicism occupational commitment and organizational dissent on knowledge inertia. Kalem International Journal of Education and Human Sciences, 11(2), 365-389. https://doi.org/10.23863/kalem.2021.175

Poole, D. (2005). The possibilities of university transformation. In R. Nata (Ed.), Issues in higher education (pp. 195-216). Nova Science.

Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879-891. https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.40.3.879

Priyatama, Y., Nurdin, F. S., & Fahmi, I. (2022). Psychological empowerment on innovative behavior with transformational leadership style as moderator variable. IJIP: Indonesian Journal of Islamic Psychology, 4(2), 58-66. https://doi.org/10.18326/ijip.v4i2.34

Sastry, A. (2001). Understanding dynamic complexity in organizational evolution: A system dynamics approach. In A. Lomi, & E.R. Larsen (Eds.), Dynamics of Organizations (pp. 377-404). AAAI/MIT-Press.

Schein, E. H. (1990). Organizational culture. American Psychologist, 45(2), 109-119. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0003-066X.45.2.109

Sekman, M., & Utku, A. (2008). Agile companies: overcoming corporate inertia. Alfa.

Shalikar, S., Lahoutpour, N., & Rahman, A. B. A. (2011). The study on the impact of knowledge inertia on organization. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(10), 1207-1213. https://www.ajbasweb.com/old/ajbas/2011/October-2011/1207-1213.pdf

Siemens, G., & Matheos, K. (2010). Systemic changes in higher education. Technology and Social Media in Education, 16(1), 3-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.37119/ojs2010.v16i1.42

Soysal, A. (2010). Inertia: An analysis at the personal and organizational level for effective management. Journal of Cement Employer, 24(3), 16-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmrv.2021.01.003

Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal 38(5), 1442-1465. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.2307/256865

Spreitzer, G. M. (2008). Taking stock: A review of more than twenty years of research on empowerment at work. In J. Barling, & C. Cooper (Eds.), The sage handbook of organisational behaviour (pp. 54-73). Sage.

Suherman, E., & Rismayadi, B. (2022). Mediating effect of psychology empowerment on the influence of knowledge sharing to lecturer performance: an empirical study in UBP Karawang. In W. R. Murhadi, D. Anandya, N. K. Darmasetiawan, J. D. Trisnawati, P. A. Mahadwartha, & E. Tandelilin (Eds.), 19th International Symposium on Management (INSYMA 2022) (pp. 445-452). Atlantis Press.

Surgevil, O., Tolay, E., & Topoyan, M. (2013). The validity and reliability analysis of structural empowerment and psychological empowerment scales. Journal of Yasar University, 8, 5371-5391. http://dx.doi.org/10.22521/unibulletin.2017.61.10

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics. Pearson.

Tekin, İ. Ç., & Akgemci, T. (2019). The effect of psychological empowerment on innovative work behavior. Journal of Business Research-Turk, 11(3), 1674-1692. https://doi.org/10.20491/isarder.2019.698

Thomas, K. W., & Velthouse, B. A. (1990). Cognitive elements of empowerment: An “interpretive” model of intrinsic task motivation. Academy of Management Review, 15(4), 666-681. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1990.4310926

Turkan, A., & Esmer, Y. (2019). A theoretical overview to the concept of organizational inertia. Journal of Strategic and Social Researches, 3(3), 525-534. https://doi.org/10.24205/03276716.2020.1011

Tushman, M. L., & Romanelli, E. (1985). Organizational evolution: A metamorphosis model of convergence and reorientation. Research in Organizational Behavior, 7, 171-222. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1986-02689-001

Vrabcová, D. (2015). Teachers´ and teacher educators’ attitudes to educational changes: An insight to the Czech educational system. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 171, 472-481. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.149

Whetten, D. A., & Cameron, K. S. (2015). Developing management skills. Pearson.

Xiaorong, F., Rui, L., & Jing, P. (2019). Influence of channel learning on innovation ability from the perspective of organizational inertia. Science Research Management, 40(1), 76-88. http://journal26.magtechjournal.com/Jwk3_kygl/EN/Y2019/V40/I1/76

Yalcin, C. I., & Senturk, F. K. (2019). Information inertia in organizations. Education Publishing.

Yuan, F., & Woodman, R. W. (2010). Innovative behavior in the workplace: The role of performance and image outcome expectations. Academy of Management Journal, 53(2), 323-342. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.5465/AMJ.2010.49388995

Yükseköğretim Kurulu Başkanlığı. (2021). Yükseköğretim Bilgi Yönetim Sistemi [Higher education information management system]. https://istatistik.yok.gov.tr/

Zantvoort, B. (2015). On inertia: Resistance to change in individuals, institutions and the development of knowledge. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy, 11(1), 342-361. https://cosmosandhistory.org/index.php/journal/article/view/464



EDUPIJ Statistics from Scopus

CiteScore: 1.4, view Scopus page

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

► Educational Process: International Journal is member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). 

► New issue coming soon! (Volume 12 Issue 3, 2023)