Volume 4 Issue 1-2 (2015)

Ostracism among Gifted Adolescents: A Preliminary Study in Turkey

pp. 18-30  |  Published Online: November 2015  |  DOI: 10.12973/edupij.2015.412.2

Uzeyir Ogurlu


Ostracism has an influence on psychological and social functioning. The aim of this study is to examine ostracism among gifted students, with regard to gender and grade levels. Also, the relationship between ostracism and intelligence level was investigated. The study was conducted in a gifted education center, with 94 gifted students who were attending middle school (grades 5-8). The Ostracism Experience Scale for Adolescents and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Revised Form were employed as data collection tools. According to the findings obtained from the study, it is concluded that ostracism did not differ in terms of gender among gifted students. Besides, being socially excluded may be higher in 8th grades than 6th and 7th grades. Also in the study, a positive correlation was found between intelligence level and ostracism. Discussion and suggestions were also provided based on the results.

Keywords: gifted students, ostracism, exclusion, adolescents


Akin, A., Dogan, R., Gonulalan, G. D., Atik, R., Cebis, T., & Akin, U. (2014, April). Reliability and Validity for Turkish Form of the Ostracism Experience Scale for Adolescent. Paper presented at the 1st Eurasian Educational Research Congress, April, 24-26, Istanbul, Turkey.

Asher, S. R., & Coie, J. D. (Eds.). (1990). Peer rejection in childhood. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bailey, C. L. (2011). An examination of the relationships between ego development, Dabrowski’s theory of positive disintegration, and the behavioral characteristics of gifted adolescents. Gifted Child Quarterly, 55, 208–227.

Bastian, B., & Haslam, N. (2010). Excluded from humanity: The dehumanizing effects of social ostracism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 107-113.

Baumeister, R. F., DeWall, C. N., Ciarrocco, N. L., & Twenge, J. M. (2006). Social exclusion impairs self-regulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 589–604.

Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497-529.

Björkqvist, K., Österman, K., & Kaukiainen, A. (1992). The development of direct and indirect aggressive strategies in males and females. In K. Björkqvist, & P. Niemela (Eds.), Of mice and women: Aspects of female aggression (pp. 51–64). San Diego, CA: Academic.

Bosworth, K., Espelage, D. L., & Simon, T. R. (1999). Factors associated with bullying behavior in middle school students. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19, 341–362.

Buhs, E., Ladd, G. W., & Herald, S. L. (2006). Peer exclusion and victimization: Processes that mediate the relation between peer group rejection and children’s classroom engagement and achievement? Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 1-13.

Burnukara, P., & Ucanok, Z. (2012). Bullying in early and middle adolescence: Where does it take place and coping strategies. Turkish Psychological Articles, 15(29), 68-82.

Cassady, J. C., & Cross, T. L. (2006). A factorial representation of suicidal ideation among academically gifted adolescents. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 29, 290–304.

Catanese, K. R., & Tice, D. M. (2005). The effect of rejection on anti-social behaviors: Social exclusion produces aggressive behaviors. In K. D. Williams, J. P. Forgas, & W. Von Hippel (Eds.) The social outcast: Ostracism, social exclusion, rejection, and bullying (pp.297-306) New York: Psychology Press.

Crick, N. R., & Bigbee, M. A. (1998). Relational and overt forms of peer victimization: A multi-informant approach. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(2), 337–347.

Crick, N. R., Casas, J. F., & Ku, H. (1999). Physical and relational peer victimization in preschool. Developmental Psychology, 35, 376-385.

Crick, N. R., & Grotpeter, J. K. (1996). Children’s treatment by peers: Victims of relational and overt aggression. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 367–380.

Crick, N. R., & Nelson, D. A. (2002). Relational and physical victimization within peer relationships and friendships: Nobody told me there’d be friends like these. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(6), 599–607.

Csikszentmihalyi, M., Larson, R., & Prescott, S. (1977). The ecology of adolescent activity and experience. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 6, 281–294.

Dauber, S. L., & Benbow, C. P. (1990). Aspects of personality and peer relations of extremely talented adolescents. Gifted Child Quarterly, 34, 10-14.

Dolek, N. (2002). Researching bullying behavior of student and a model for a prevention program Unpublished thesis. Marmara University, Istanbul.

Espelage, D. L. (2002). Bullying in early adolescence: The role of the peer group. (Report No. EDO-PS-02-16). Champaign, IL: Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED-99-CO-0020).

Espelage, D., & Horne, A. (2008). School violence and bullying prevention: From research based explanations to empirically based solutions. In S. Brown, & R. Lent (Eds.), Handbook of counseling psychology (4th Ed., pp. 588–606). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

Freeman, J. (1979). Emotional problems of the gifted child. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24, 481-485.

General Directorate of Family and Community Services. (2013). Turkey adolescent research profile-2013. Retrieved January 10, 2015 from http://ailetoplum.aile.gov.tr/data/544f6ddd369dc328a057d01c/tepa2013_teksf.pdf.

Gilman, R., Carter-Sowell A., DeWall, N., Adams, R., & Carboni, I. (2013). Validation of the Ostracism Experiences Scale for adolescents. Psychological Assessment, 25(2), 319-330.

Griffin, R. S., & Gross, A. M. (2004). Childhood bullying: Current empirical findings and future directions for research. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 9, 379–400.

Gross, M. U. M. (1989). The pursuit of excellence of the search for intimacy? The forced-choice dilemma of gifted youth. Roeper Review, 11(4), 189-194.

Gross, M. U. M. (1998). The ‘‘me’’ behind the mask: Intellectually gifted students and the search for identity. Roeper Review, 20, 167–174.

Gross, M. U. M. (2002a). “Play partner” or “sure shelter”: What gifted children look for in friendship. The SENG Newsletter, 2, 1–3.

Gross, M. U. M. (2002b). Social and emotional issues for exceptionally intellectually gifted students. In M. Neihart, S. M. Reis, N. M. Robinson, & S. M. Moon (Eds.), The social and emotional development of gifted children: What do we know? (pp. 19-30). Washington, DC: The National Association for Gifted Children.

Gross, M. U. M. (2004). Psychosocial development. In M.U. M. Gross (Ed.) Exceptionally Gifted Children (pp. 176-199). New York: Routledge.

Gross, M. U. M. (2009). Highly gifted young people: Development from childhood to adulthood. In L. Shavanina (Ed.), International Handbook on Giftedness (pp. 337–351). New York, NY: Springer Science.

Harris, J. R. (1995). Where is the child's environment? A group socialization theory of development. Psychological Review, 102, 458-489.

Hawes, D. J., Zadro, L., Fink, E., Richardson, R., O'Moore, K., Griffths, B.,…Williams, K. D. (2012). The effects of peer ostracism on children's cognitive processes. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 599-613.

Hébert, T. P. (2002). Gifted males. In M. Neihart, S. M. Reis, N. M. Robinson, & S. M. Moon (Eds.), The social and emotional development of gifted children: What do we know? (pp. 137–144). Waco, TX: Prufrock Press.

Kartal, H., & Bilgin, A. (2009). Bullying and school climate from the aspects of the students and teachers. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 36, 209-226.

Kerr, B. A., & Cohen, S. J. (2001). Smart boys’ talent, manhood and the search for meaning. Scottsdale, AZ: Great Potential Press.

Kerr, B. A., & Foley Nicpon, M. (2003). Gender and giftedness. In N. Colangelo, & G. A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of gifted education (3rd ed., pp. 493-505). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Kerr, B. A., & Multon, K. D. (2015). The development of gender identity, gender roles, and gender relations in gifted students. Journal of Counseling & Development, 93, 183-191.

Larson, R., & Richards, M. H. (1991). Daily companionship in late childhood and early adolescence: Changing developmental contexts. Child Development, 62, 284-300.

Leary, M. R., Kowalski, R. M., Smith, L., & Phillips, S. (2003). Teasing, rejection, and violence: Case studies of the school shootings. Aggressive Behavior, 29, 202-214.

Martino, W., & Blye, F. (2006). The tyranny of surveillance: male teachers and the policing of masculinities in a single sex school. Gender and Education, 18(1), 17-33.

Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M. D., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviours among U.S. youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 16, 2094-2100.

Nezlek, J. B., Wesselmann, E. D., Wheeler, L., & Williams, K. D. (2012). Ostracism in everyday life. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 16, 91-104.

Oner, N. (1997). The psychological tests used in Turkey. A reference guide. (3rd Ed.) Istanbul: Bogazici University Press.

Paquette, J. A., & Underwood, M. K. (1999). Gender differences in young adolescents’ experiences of peer victimization: Social and physical aggression. Merrill–Palmer Quarterly, 45(2), 242–266.

Parker, J. G., Rubin, K. H., Erath, S. A., Wojslawowicz, J. C., & Buskirk, A. A. (2006). A developmental psychopathology perspective. In D. Cicchetti, & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental Psychopathology: Theory and methods (2nd ed., vol. 1, pp. 96–161). New York: Wiley.

Pekel, N. (2004). An investigation of sociometric status, loneliness and academic achievement among peer bullying groups. Unpublished Master’s thesis. Hacettepe University, Ankara.

Perry, D. G., Perry, L. C., & Weiss, R. J. (1989). Sex differences in the early consequences that children anticipate for aggression. Developmental Psychology, 25, 312-319.

Peterson, J. S. (2002). A longitudinal study of post-high-school development in gifted individuals at risk for poor educational outcomes. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 14, 6-18.

Peterson, J. S., & Ray, K. E. (2006). Bullying and the gifted: Victims, perpetrators, prevalence, and effects. Gifted Child Quarterly, 50, 148-168.

Piechowski, M. M., & Cunningham, K. (1985). Patterns of overexcitability in a group of artists. Journal of Creative Behavior, 19, 153-174.

Rigby, K., Cox, I. K., & Black, G. (1997). Cooperativeness and bully/victim problems among Australian schoolchildren. Journal of Social Psychology, 137(3), 357-368.

Rimm, S. (2002). Peer pressures and social acceptance of gifted students. In M. Neihart, S. M. Reis, N. M. Robinson, & S. M. Moon (Eds.), The social and emotional development of gifted children: What do we know? (pp. 13-18). Waco, TX: Prufrock Press.

Rimm, S. B., Rimm-Kaufman, S., & Rimm, I. (1999). See Jane win: The Rimm report on how 1,000 girls became successful women. New York: Crown.

Rinn, A. N. (2006). Effects of a summer program on the social self-concepts of gifted adolescents. The Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 17(2), 65–75.

Robers, S., Zhang, J., & Truman, J. (2012). Indicators of school crime and safety: 2011. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved February 20, 2015, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2011/2011002.pdf.

Robinson, N. M. (2002). Introduction. In M. Neihart, S. M. Reis, N. M. Robinson, & S. M. Moon (Eds.), The social and emotional development of gifted children: What do we know? (pp. xi-xxiv). Washington, DC: The National Association for Gifted Children.

Robinson, N. M. (2008). The social world of gifted children and youth. In S. I. Pfeiffer (Ed.), Handbook of giftedness in children: Psychoeducational theory, research, and best practices (pp. 33-51). New York: Springer.

Rutter, P. A., & Behrendt, A. E. (2004). Adolescent suicide risk: Four psychosocial factors. Adolescence, 39, 295–302.

Savasir, I., & Sahin, N. (1995). Wechsler intelligence scale for children manual. Ankara: Turkish Psychologist Society Publishing.

Schäfer, M., Werner, N. E., & Crick, N. R. (2002). A comparison of two approaches to the study of negative peer treatment: General victimization and bully/victim problems among German school children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 20, 281-306.

Sebastian, C., Viding, E., Williams, K. D., & Blakemore, S. J. (2010). Social brain development and the affective consequences of ostracism in adolescence. Brain and Cognition, 72, 134-145.

Silverman, L. K. (1993). The gifted individual. In L. K. Silverman (Ed.), Counseling the gifted and talented (pp. 3-25). Denver, CO: Love Publishing

Silverman, L. K. (2002). Asynchronous development. In M. Neihart, S. M. Reis, N. M. Robinson, & S. M. Moon (Eds.), The social and emotional development of gifted children: What do we know? (pp. 31-40). Waco, TX: Prufrock Press.

Sirvanli-Ozen, D. (2006). The relationship between the adolescents' exposure to peer victimization and their age, parental style and self-image. Turkish Journal of Psychology, 21, 58, 77-98.

Smith, J. (2007). Ye`ve got to ‘ave’ balls to play the game sir! Boys, peers and fears: the negative influence of school based cultural accomplices in constructing hegemonic masculinities. Gender and Education, 19(2), 179-198.

Steinberg, L., & Silverberg, S. B. (1986). The vicissitudes of autonomy in early adolescence. Child Development, 57(4), 841-851.

Stout, J. G. (2009). When he doesn't mean you: Gender-exclusive language as a form of subtle ostracism. Unpublished Master Thesis. Amherst, Massachusetts, University of Massachusetts.

Sullivan, T. N., Farrell, A. D., & Kliewer, W. (2006). Peer victimisation in early adolescence: Association between physical and relational victimisation and drug use, aggression, and delinquent behaviors among urban middle school students. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 119-137.

Swaitek, M. A., & Dorr, R. M. (1998). Revision of the social coping questionnaire: Replication and extension of previous findings. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 10, 252-260.

Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2007). Preadolescents' and adolescents' online communication and their closeness to friends. Developmental Psychology, 43, 267-277.

Vanderbrook, C. M. (2006). Intellectually gifted females and their perspectives of lived experience in the AP and IB program. The Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 17(3), 5-20.

VanTassel-Baska, J., & Olszewski-Kubilius, P. (Eds.). (1989). Patterns of influence on gifted learners. New York: Teacher’s College Press.

Wellisch, M., & Brown, J. (2012). An integrated identification and intervention model for intellectually gifted children. Journal of Advanced Academics, 23, 145-167.

Williams, K. D. (2001). Ostracism: The power of silence. New York: Guilford Press.

Williams, K. D. (2007). Ostracism: The kiss of social death. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 1, 236–247.

Williams, K. D., & Gerber, J. (2005). Ostracism: The making of the ignored and excluded mind. Interaction Studies, 6(3), 359-374.

Witvliet, M., Brendgen, M., Van Lier, P. A. C., Koot, H. M., & Vitaro, F. (2010). Early adolescent depressive symptoms: Prediction from clique isolation, loneliness, and perceived social acceptance. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 1045-1056.

Woods, S., & Wolke, D. (2004). Direct and relational bullying among primary school children and academic achievement. Journal of School Psychology, 42, 135-155. 


COPE Membership

Cope logo. 

Educational Process: International Journal is a member of and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). 

Call for Papers

EDUPIJ is calling for submissions to the Volume 7, Issue 1, 2018. Submission Deadline: January 31, 2018.