Moderator effect of COVID-19 fear on “mediating role of boredom proneness in relationship between internet addiction and DASS-21”
pp. 83-99 | Published Online: May 2021 | DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2021.102.5
Background/purpose – COVID-19 emerged at a time when many different psychological factors can negatively affect the human psychology, and thereby making life even more difficult over and above the physical health impact. As known, with the development of modern-day technology, Internet usage has become a part of everyday life. However, this situation often brings about the problem of Internet addiction. A positive relationship is known to exist between Internet addiction and psychological problems. This study aims to examine the moderator effect of COVID-19 fear on the “mediating role of boredom proneness in relationship between internet addiction and DASS-21.”
Materials/methods – In the current study, the effect of boredom proneness in this relationship was examined through the mediator effect of boredom proneness in the relationship between Internet addiction and the “Depression, stress and anxiety scale” DASS-21. Then, the moderator effect of the fear of COVID-19 was examined on the mediator role, which constitutes the main purpose of this research. For these purposes, 560 students studying at the undergraduate level at state universities in Turkey were reached as a sample. In the analysis of the collected data; parametric tests, correlation test, structural equation model, and moderator analysis were employed.
Results – In the model in which the moderator effect of COVID-19 fear was examined; it appears that fear of COVID-19 increases the relationship between Internet addiction and boredom proneness. It also increases the relationship between boredom proneness and DASS-21. However, no significant moderator effect was found to exist in the relationship between Internet addiction and DASS-21.
Conclusion – This study shows that the fear of COVID-19 has a significant effect on Internet addiction, boredom proneness, and psychological problems. This research was conducted based on the analysis of certain variables, presentation of the results and their subsequent discussion, and the putting forward of various suggestions.
Keywords: Fear of COVID-19, DASS-21, internet addiction, boredom proneness, moderator, mediator.References
Ahorsu, D. K., Lin, C.-Y., Imani, V., Saffari, M., Griffiths, M. D., & Pakpour, A. H. (2020). The Fear of COVID19 Scale: Development and initial validation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00270-8
Alavi, S. S., Eslami, M., Meracy, M. R., Najafi, M., Jannatifard, F., & Rezapour, H. (2010). Psychometric properties of Young internet addiction test. International Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 4(3), 7-8. http://www.behavsci.ir/article_67688.html
Aruna, S., & Santhi, P. (2015). Impulse purchase behavior among generation-Y. Journal of Marketing Management, 14(1), 21-38.
Bakioğlu, F., Korkmaz, O., & Ercan, H. (2020). Fear of COVID-19 and positivity: Mediating role of intolerance of uncertainty, depression, anxiety, and stress. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. Advance online publication https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00331-y
Biolcati, R., Mancini, G., & Trombini, E. (2018). Proneness to boredom and risk behaviors during adolescents’ free time. Psychological Reports, 121(2), 303-323. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033294117724447
Bozkurt, H., Coskun, M., Ayaydin, H., Adak, I., & Zoroglu, S. S. (2013). Prevalence and patterns of psychiatric disorders in referred adolescents with Internet addiction. Psychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 67(5), 352-359. https://doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12065
Christakis, D. A. (2010). Internet addiction: a 21st century epidemic? BMC Medicine, 8, Article 61. https://doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-8-61
Creswell, J. W. (2017). Araştırma probleminin tanımlanması. In J. W. Creswell (D. Dinçer, Trans.) (2017), Eğitim Araştırmaları: Nicel ve Nitel Araştırmanın Planlanması, Yürütülmesi ve Değerlendirilmesi (pp. 82-108). Eğitim Danışmanlığı ve Araştırmaları Merkezi.
Demir, Y., & Kutlu, M. (2016). The Relationship between Loneliness and Depression: Mediation Role of Internet Addiction. Educational Process: International Journal, 5(2), 97-105. http://dx.doi.org/10.12973/edupij.2016.52.1
Demir, Y., & Kutlu, M. (2018). The Relationship among Internet Addiction, Academic Motivation, Academic Procrastination and School Attachment in Adolescents. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 10(5), 315-332. https://doi.org/10.15345/iojes.2018.05.020
Flanagan, E. W., Beyl, R. A., Fearnbach, S. N., Altazan, A. D., Martin, C. K., & Redman, L. M. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 stay-at-home orders on health behaviors in adults. Obesity, 29(2), 438-445. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.23066
Goldstein, A. L., Vilhena-Churchill, N., Stewart, S. H., Hoaken, P. N., & Flett, G. L. (2016). Mood, motives, and money: an examination of factors that differentiate online and non-online young adult gamblers. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 5(1), 68-76. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.5.2016.003
Guan, W.-J., Ni, Z.-Y., Hu, Y., Liang, W.-H., Ou, C.-Q., He, J.-X., Liu, L., Shan, H., Lei, C.-L., Hui, D. S. C., Du, B., Li, L.-J., Zeng, G., Yuen, K.-Y., Chen, R.-C., Tang, C.-L., Wang, T., Chen, P.-Y., Xiang, J., Li, S.-Y.,…Zhong, N.-S. (2020). Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. New England Journal of Medicine, 382, 1708-1720. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2002032
Güner, H., Okan, N., & Kardaş, S. (2021). Turkish adaptation and psychometric analysis of the short boredom proneness scale. Marmara Üniversitesi Atatürk Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 53, 326-341. https://doi.org/10.15285/maruaebd.797235
Hatun, O., Dicle, A. N., & Demirci, İ. (2020). Koronavirüs salgınının psikolojik yansımaları ve salgınla başa çıkma [Psychological Reflections of the Coronavirus Pandemic and Coping with Pandemic]. Journal of Turkish Studies, 15(4), 531-554. https://dx.doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.44364
Hayes, A. F. (2018). Partial, conditional, and moderated moderated mediation: Quantification, inference, and interpretation. Communication Monographs, 85(1), 4-40. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637751.2017.1352100
Henry, J. D., & Crawford, J. R. (2005). The short-form version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Construct validity and normative data in a large non-clinical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44(2), 227-239. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466505X29657
Hong, F.-Y., Huang, D.-H., Lin, H.-Y., & Chiu, S.-L. (2014). Analysis of the psychological traits, Facebook usage, and Facebook addiction model of Taiwanese university students. Telematics and Informatics, 31(4), 597-606. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2014.01.001
Kahne, J., Crow, D., & Lee, N. J. (2013). Different pedagogy, different politics: high school learning opportunities and youth political engagement. Political Psychology, 34(3), 419-441. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9221.2012.00936.x
Karakose, T., & Malkoc, N. (2021a). Psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical doctors in Turkey. Social Behavior and Personality, 49(1), e9890. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.9890
Karakose, T., & Malkoc, N. (2021b). Behavioral and interpersonal effects of the COVID-19 epidemic on frontline physicians working in Emergency Departments (EDs) and Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Acta Medica Mediterranea, 37, 437-444. https://doi.org/10.19193/0393-6384_2021_1_68
Karakose, T., Yirci, R., Basyigit, H., & Kucukcakir, A. (2021). Investigation of associations between the effects of COVID-19 fear on school administrators and nutrition and problematic eating behaviors. Progress in Nutrition, 23(2): e2021187, [OnlineFirst]. https://doi.org/10.23751/pn.v23i2.11656
Koçak, O., Koçak, Ö. E. & Younis, M. Z. (2021). The Psychological Consequences of COVID-19 Fear and the Moderator Effects of Individuals’ Underlying Illness and Witnessing Infected Friends and Family. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(4), Article 1836. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041836
Kuss, D. J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2011) Online social networking and addiction—a review of the psychological literature. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8, 3528-3552. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph8093528
Kuss, D. J., Griffiths, M. D., Karila, L., & Billieux, J. (2014). Internet addiction: a systematic review of epidemiological research for the last decade. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 20(25), 4026-4052. http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/13816128113199990617
Lam, M. H.-B., Wing, Y.-K., Yu, M. W.-M., Leung, C.-M., Ma, R. C. W., Kong, A. P. S., So, W. Y., Fong, S. Y.-Y., & Lam, S.-P. (2009). Mental morbidities and chronic fatigue in severe acute respiratory syndrome survivors: Long-term follow-up. Journal of Internal Medicine, 169(22), 2142–2147. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinternmed.2009.384
Lee, B. W., & Leeson, P. R. C. (2015). Online gaming in the context of social anxiety. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 29(2), 473-482. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/adb0000070
Li, W., O’Brien, J. E., Snyder, S. M., & Howard, M. O. (2015). Characteristics of Internet Addiction/Pathological Internet Use in U.S. University Students: A Qualitative-Method Investigation. Plos One, 10(2), Article e0117372. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117372
Lovibond, P. F., & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33(3), 335-343. https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(94)00075-U
Martin, M., Sadlo, G., & Stew, G. (2012). Rethinking occupational deprivation and boredom. Journal of Occupational Science, 19(1), 54-61, https://doi.org/10.1080/14427591.2011.640210.
Mikulas, W., & Vodanovich, S. (1993). The essence of boredom. The Psychological Record, 43(1), 3-12.
Muscanell, N. L., & Guadagno, R. E. (2012). Make new friends or keep the old: Gender and personality differences in social networking use. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(1), 107-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2011.08.016
Nichols, L. A., & Nicki, R. (2004). Development of a psychometrically sound internet addiction scale: a preliminary step. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18(4), 381-384. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0893-164X.18.4.381
Okuhara, T., Okada, H., & Kiuchi, T. (2020). Predictors of Staying at Home during the COVID-19 Pandemic and Social Lockdown based on Protection Motivation Theory: A Cross-Sectional Study in Japan. Healthcare, 8(4), Article 475. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040475
Perkins, R. E., & Hill, A. B. (1985). Cognitive and affective aspects of boredom. British Journal of Psychology, 76(2), 221-234. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1985.tb01946.x
Phelps, C., & Sperry, L. L. (2020). Children and the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(S1), 73-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/tra0000861
Pontes, H. M., Kuss, D. J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015). The clinical psychology of internet addiction: a review of its conceptualization, prevalence, neuronal processes, and implications for treatment. Neuroscience and Neuroeconomics, 4, 11-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NAN.S60982
Rotunda, R. J., Kass, S. J., Sutton, M. A., & Leon D. T. (2003). Internet use and misuse. Preliminary findings from a new assessment instrument. Behavior Modification, 27(4), 484-504. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0145445503255600
Samuels, D. J., & Samuels, M. (1974). Low self-concept as a cause of drug abuse. Journal of Drug Education, 4(4), 421-438. https://doi.org/10.2190%2FVJHU-MRAR-NLG6-1XBH
Sarıçam, H. (2018). The psychometric properties of Turkish version of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) in health control and clinical samples. Journal of Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy and Research, 7(1), 19-30. https://doi.org/10.5455/JCBPR.274847
Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Test of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23-74.
Sheridan, A., Andersen, A. L., Hansen, E. T., & Johannesen, N. (2020). Social distancing laws cause only small losses of economic activity during the COVID-19 pandemic in Scandinavia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(34), 20468-20473. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2010068117
Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and on experimental studies: new procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7(4), 422-445. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.7.4.422
Smahel, D., Brown, B. B., & Blinka, L. (2012). Associations between online friendship and Internet addiction among adolescents and emerging adults. Developmental Psychology, 48(2), 381-388. https://psycnet.apa.org/buy/2012-04837-005
Struk, A. A., Carriere, J. S. A., Cheyne, J. A., & Danckert, J. (2015). A short boredom proneness scale: Development and psychometric properties. Assessment, 24(3), 346-359. https://doi.org/10.1177/107.319.1115609996
Tas, I. (2019). Ergenler için internet bağımlılığı ölçeği: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Kırşehir Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 20(2),875- 905. DOI: 10.29299/kefad.2019.20.02.011
Tingley, D., Yamamoto, T., Hirose, K., Keele, L., & Imai, K. (2014). Mediation: R package for causal mediation analysis. Journal of Statistical Software, 59(5), 1-38. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v059.i05
Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2007). Preadolescents' and adolescents' online communication and their closeness to friends. Developmental Psychology, 43(2), 267–277. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.1687
Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2011). Online communication among adolescents: an integrated model of its attraction, opportunities, and risks. Journal of Adolescent Health, 48(2), 121-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.08.020
Van Bavel, J. J., Baicker, K., Boggio, P. S., Capraro, V., Cichocka, A., Cikara, M., Crockett, M. J., Crum, A. J., Douglas, K. M., Druckman, J. N., Drury, J., Dube, O., Ellemers, N., Finkel, E. J., Fowler, J. H., Gelfand, M., Han, S., Haslam, S. A., Jetten, J.,…Wille, R. (2020). Using social and behavioural science to support COVID-19 pandemic response. Nature Human Behavior, 4, 460-471. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-020-0884-z
Vodanovich, S. J. (2003). Psychometric measures of boredom: a review of the literature. The Journal of Psychology, 137(6), 569-595. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980309600636
Weinstein, A., Dorani, D., Elhadif, R., Bukovza, Y., Yarmulnik, A., & Dannon, P. (2015). Internet addiction is associated with social anxiety in young adults. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 27(1), 2-7. https://www.aacp.com/article/buy_now/?id=20
Widyanto, L., Griffiths, M. D., Brunsden, V., & McMurran, M. (2007). The psychometric properties of the internet related problem scale: a pilot study. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 6(2), 205-213. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-007-9120-6
Wilson, K., Fornasier, S,. & White, K. M. (2010). Psychological predictors of young adults’ use of social networking sites. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13(2), 173-179. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2009.0094
Yao, M. Z., & Zhong, Z.-J. (2014). Loneliness, social contacts and internet addiction: a cross-lagged panel study. Computers in Human Behavior, 30, 164-170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.08.007
Yen, J.-Y., Ko, C.-H., Yen, C.-F., Wu, H.-Y., & Yang, M,-J. (2007). The comorbid psychiatric symptoms of Internet addiction: attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, social phobia, and hostility. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(1), 93-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.02.002
Young, K. S. (1998). Internet Addiction The Emergence of a New Clinical Disorder. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 1(3), 237-244. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.1998.1.237