Volume 10 Issue 1 (2021)

Relationships among childhood experiences, happiness and social media addictions in adolescents

pp. 13-26  |  Published Online: March 2021  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2021.101.2

Yasin Demir

Abstract

Background/purpose – The use of social media has become commonplace among adolescents. However, excessive use of social media causes addiction in some cases. In this context, it is considered important to investigate the factors related to social media addiction. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships among childhood experiences, happiness, and social media addiction in adolescents.

Materials/methods – In the study, correlations between childhood experiences, happiness, and social media addiction among adolescents were tested with the structural equation model. The research involved 314 adolescents, and the Social Media Disorder Scale (SMDS), The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire Short Form (OHQ-SF), and the Childhood Experiences Questionnaire (CEQ) were used as data collection tools. SPSS 21 and AMOS programs were used for data analysis.

Results – The results of the path analysis indicated that negative childhood experiences negatively and directly affect happiness, whilst happiness negatively and directly affects social media addictions, negative childhood experiences positively and indirectly affect social media addictions, negative childhood experiences negatively affects happiness, and unhappiness positively affects social media addiction.

Conclusion – The current study's results have shown that negative perceived childhood experiences can negatively affect individuals emotionally and behaviorally during adolescence.

Keywords: Childhood experiences, happiness, social media addiction, adolescent.

References

Afsar, B. (2013). The relation between Internet and social media use and the demographic and clinical parameters, quality of life, depression, cognitive function and sleep quality in hemodialysis patients: social media and hemodialysis. General Hospital Psychiatry, 35(6), 625-630. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2013.05.001

Akın, A. (2012). The relationships between Internet addiction, subjective vitality, and subjective happiness. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking15(8), 404-410. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2011.0609

Altinkurt, Y., & Karakose, T. (2009). İlköğretim okulu müdürlerinin etik liderlik davranışlarına ilişkin öğretmen görüşleri. Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 24, 269-280. https://app.trdizin.gov.tr/makale/T1RVd056TXo/ilkogretim-okulu-mudurlerinin-etik-liderlik-davranislarina-iliskin-ogretmen-gorusleri

Andreassen, C. S. (2015). Online social network site addiction: A comprehensive review. Current Addiction Reports, 2, 175-184. https://doi:10.1007/s40429-015-0056-9

Balakrishnan, J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). Social media addiction: What is the role of content in YouTube? Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 6(3), 364-377. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.6.2017.058

Bányai, F., Zsila, Á., Király, O., Maraz, A., Elekes, Z., Griffiths, M. D., Schou Andreassen, C., & Demetrovics, Z. (2017). Problematic social media use: Results from a large-scale nationally representative adolescent sample. PLoS One12(1), Article e0169839. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169839

Battle, C. L., Shea, M. T., Johnson, D. M., Yen, S., Zlotnick, C., Zanarini, M. C., Sanislow, C. A., Skodol, A. E., Gunderson, J. G., Grilo, C. M., McGlashan, T. H., & Morey, L. C. (2004). Childhood maltreatment associated with adult personality disorders: Findings from the collaborative longitudinal personality disorders study. Journal of Personality Disorders18(2), 193-211. https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.18.2.193.32777

Bilgin, O., & Taş, İ. (2018). Effects of perceived social support and psychological resilience on social media addiction among university students. Universal Journal of Educational Research6(4), 751-758. http://dx.doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2018.060418

Biolcati, R., Mancini, G., Pupi, V., & Mugheddu, V. (2018). Facebook addiction: Onset predictors. Journal of Clinical Medicine7(6), Article 118. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7060118

Blackwell, D., Leaman, C., Tramposch, R., Osborne, C., & Liss, M. (2017). Extraversion, neuroticism, attachment style and fear of missing out as predictors of social media use and addiction. Personality and Individual Differences116, 69-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.04.039

Çeçen Eroğul, A. R., & Türk, Ş. B. (2013). An investigation of the relationship between childhood trauma experience of adolescents and the anger expression styles, self -esteem, life satisfaction. International Journal of Human Sciences10(1), 1421-1439. https://www.j-humansciences.com/ojs/index.php/ijhs/article/view/2559

Cesur, G., Sayrac, N., & Korkmaz, E. (2018). The Role of mindfulness between childhood abuse and trait anxiety. Turkish Journal of Psychology, 33(81), 97-112. https://www.psikolog.org.tr/en/publications/yayinlar/10.31828/tpd1300443320180000m000006.pdf

Çokluk, Ö., Şekercioğlu, G., & Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2012). Sosyal bilimler için çok değişkenli istatistik: SPSS ve LISREL uygulamaların [Multivariate statistics for social sciences: SPSS and LISREL applications]. Pegem Akademi.

Demir, Y., & Kutlu, M. (2016). Relation between social interaction anxiety and happiness: Intermediary role of solitude among university students. Gazi University Journal of Gazi Educational Faculty36(1), 195-210. http://www.gefad.gazi.edu.tr/en/download/article-file/312842

Demirci, I. (2019). The adaptation of the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale to Turkish and its evaluation of relationship with depression and anxiety symptoms. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 20(SI1), 15-23. http://doi.org/10.5455/apd.41585

Diener, E., Scollon, C. N., & Lucas, R. E. (2009). The evolving concept of subjective well-being: The multifaceted nature of happiness. In E. Diener (Ed.), Assessing well-being (pp. 67-100). Springer.

Doğan, T., & Sapmaz, F. (2012). Oxford mutluluk ölçeği Türkçe formunun psikometrik özelliklerinin üniversite öğrencilerinde incelenmesi [Examination of psychometric properties of the Turkish version form of the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire in university students]. Düşünen Adam The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 25(4), 297-304. http://doi.org/10.5350/dajpn2012250401

Durak, H. Y. (2018). Modeling of variables related to problematic internet usage and problematic social media usage in adolescents. Current Psychology, 39, 1375-1387. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-9840-8

Gibb, B. E., Chelminski, I., & Zimmerman, M. (2007). Childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, and diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders in adult psychiatric outpatients. Depression and Anxiety24(4), 256-263. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20238

Hamarta, E., Deniz, M. E., & Saltalı, D. N. (2009). Attachment styles as a predictor of emotional intelligence. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice9(1), 195-229. http://oldsite.estp.com.tr/en/makale.asp?ID=372&act=detay

Hawi, N. S., & Samaha, M. (2017). The relations among social media addiction, self-esteem, and life satisfaction in university students. Social Science Computer Review35(5), 576-586. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439316660340

Hawi, N., & Samaha, M. (2018). Identifying commonalities and differences in personality characteristics of Internet and social media addiction profiles: Traits, self-esteem, and self-construal. Behaviour & Information Technology, 38(2), 110-119. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144929X.2018.1515984

Herrenkohl, T. I., Hong, S., Klika, J. B., Herrenkohl, R. C., & Russo, M. J. (2013). Developmental impacts of child abuse and neglect related to adult mental health, substance use, and physical health. Journal of Family Violence28(2), 191-199. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-012-9474-9

Hills, P., & Argyle, M. (2002). The Oxford happiness questionnaire: A compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences33(7), 1073-1082. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00213-6

Holmgren, H. G., & Coyne, S. M. (2017). Can’t stop scrolling!: pathological use of social networking sites in emerging adulthood. Addiction Research & Theory, 25(5), 375-382. https://doi.org/10.1080/16066359.2017.1294164

Jaworska-Andryszewska, P., & Rybakowski, J. K. (2019). Childhood trauma in mood disorders: neurobiological mechanisms and implications for treatment. Pharmacological Reports, 71(1), 112-120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharep.2018.10.004

Jeri-Yabar, A., Sanchez-Carbonel, A., Tito, K., Ramirez-delCastillo, J., Torres-Alcantara, A., Denegri, D., & Carreazo, Y. (2019). Association between social media use (Twitter, Instagram, Facebook) and depressive symptoms: Are Twitter users at higher risk? International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 65(1), 14-19. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764018814270

Karakose, T., & Kocabas, I. (2006). The effect of teachers’ expectations on job satisfaction and motivation in private and public schools. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 2(1), 3-14. https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/eku/issue/5441/73869

Karakose, T., Kocabas, I., Yesilyurt, H. (2014). A quantitative study of school administrators’ work–life balance and job satisfaction in public schools. Pakistan Journal of Statistics, 30, 1231-1241. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/289002648_A_quantitative_study_of_school_administrators'_work-life_balance_and_job_satisfaction_in_public_schools

Kemp S. (2021, January 27). Digital 2021: Global Overview Report. Datareportal https://datareportal.com/reports/digital-2021-global-overview-report

Kızıldağ, S., & Yıldırım, İ. (2018). Testing a couple burnout model. Turkish Psychological Counseling and Guidance Journal8(49), 101-116. http://turkpdrdergisi.com/index.php/pdr/article/view/494

Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford.

Koc, M., & Gulyagci, S. (2013). Facebook addiction among Turkish college students: The role of psychological health, demographic, and usage characteristics. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking16(4), 279-284. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2012.0249

Kuss, D. J. (2017). OP-59: Social networking sites and social media addiction: Insights from current empirical research. Journal of Behavioral Addictions6(S1), 29-30. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030311

Kuss, D. J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2011). Online social networking and addiction – a review of the psychological literature. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8(9), 3528–3552. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph8093528

Lee, H., & Schafer, M. (2020). Are positive childhood experiences linked to better cognitive functioning in later life?: Examining the role of life course pathways. Journal of Aging and Health, 33(3-4), 217-226. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898264320972547

Lenroot, R. K., & Giedd, J. N. (2006). Brain development in children and adolescents: Insights from anatomical magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews30(6), 718-729. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2006.06.001

Lim, K.-Y. (2018). An exploration of the use of Facebook by legislators in Taiwan. Issues and Studies54(3). https://doi.org/10.1142/S1013251118400052

Longstreet, P., & Brooks, S. (2017). Life satisfaction: A key to managing internet & social media addiction. Technology in Society50, 73-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2017.05.003

Louati, H., & Hadoussa, S. (2021). Study of Social media impacts on social capital and employee performance–evidence from Tunisia Telecom. Journal of Decision Systems. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/12460125.2021.1872142

Lumley, M. N., & Harkness, K. L. (2007). Specificity in the relations among childhood adversity, early maladaptive schemas, and symptom profiles in adolescent depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research31(5), 639-657. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-006-9100-3

Malkus, B. M. (1995). Family dynamic and structural correlates of adolescent substance abuse: A comparison of families of non-substance abusers and substance abusers. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse3(4), 39-52. https://doi.org/10.1300/J029v03n04_03

Manap, A. (2015). Development of childhood experiences questionnaire: The study of validity and reliability. The Journal of International Social Research, 8(41), 822-826. https://www.sosyalarastirmalar.com/cilt8/sayi41_pdf/4sosyoloji_psikoloji_felsefe/manap_abdullah.pdf

Manap, A., & Durmuş, E. (2020). Development of digital parental awareness scale. Inonu University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 21(2), 978-993. https://doi.org/10.17679/inuefd.711101

Marino, C., Gini, G., Vieno, A., & Spada, M. M. (2018). A comprehensive meta-analysis on problematic Facebook use. Computers in Human Behavior, 83, 262-277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.02.009

Marshall, L. A., & Cooke, D. J. (1999). The childhood experiences of psychopaths: A retrospective study of familial and societal factors. Journal of Personality Disorders13(3), 211-225. https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.1999.13.3.211

Meyer, B., & Carver, C. S. (2000). Negative childhood accounts, sensitivity, and pessimism: A study of avoidant personality disorder features in college students. Journal of Personality Disorders14(3), 233-248. https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2000.14.3.233

Mitra, R., & Rangaswamy, M. (2019). Excessive social media use and its association with depression and rumination in an Indian young adult population: A mediation model. Journal of Psychosocial Research, 14(1), 223-231. https://doi.org/10.32381/JPR.2019.14.01.24

Munkaila, A. & Iddrisu, A. (2015). Impact of social media sites on the academic performance of students in Polytechnic of Ghana. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 3(11), 1021-1035. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajad.20170204.13

Nezakati, H., Amidi, A., Jusoh, Y. Y., Moghadas, S., Aziz, Y. A., & Sohrabinezhadtalemi, R. (2015). Review of social media potential on knowledge sharing and collaboration in tourism industry. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 172, 120-125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.344

Phu, B., & Gow, A. J. (2019). Facebook use and its association with subjective happiness and loneliness. Computers in Human Behavior, 92, 151-159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.11.020

Read, J., & Bentall, R. P. (2012). Negative childhood experiences and mental health: theoretical, clinical and primary prevention implications. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 200(2), 89-91. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.111.096727

Roisman, G. I., Tsai, J. L., & Chiang, K.-H. S. (2004). The emotional integration of childhood experience: physiological, facial expressive, and self-reported emotional response during the adult attachment interview. Developmental Psychology, 40(5), 776-789. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.40.5.776

Şahin, C., & Yağcı, M. (2017). Social media addiction scale - adult form: The reliability and validity study. Ahi Evran University Journal of Kırşehir Education Faculty (KEFAD)18(1), 523-538. https://kefad.ahievran.edu.tr/Kefad/ArchiveIssues/Detail/1d57a43b-ee5b-e711-80ef-00224d68272d

Saini, D. S., & Puri, S. S. (2016). Preventive measures of substance abuse problem in India. Indian Journal of Health & Wellbeing7(7), 757-762. http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/ijhw/article/view/120178

Savci, M., Ercengiz, M., & Aysan, F. (2018). Turkish adaptation of the social media disorder scale in adolescents. Archives of Neuropsychiatry, 55(3), 248-255. https://doi.org/10.5152/npa.2017.19285

Siyez, D. M., Gürçay, E. G., & Yüncü, Z. (2012). The perceptions of adolescents towards their childhood family life experiences with regard to their having substance use disorder or not. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry13(4), 299-305. https://alpha-psychiatry.com/en/the-perceptions-of-adolescents-towards-their-childhood-family-life-experiences-with-regard-to-their-having-substance-use-disorder-or-not-131230

Slagoski, J. (2019). Professional learning practices and beliefs of an online community of English language teachers. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education19(1), 97-116. https://citejournal.org/volume-19/issue-1-19/current-practice/professional-learning-practices-and-beliefs-of-an-online-community-of-english-language-teachers/

Song, S.-G., & Kim, D.-Y. (2017). How was your trip experience while you were obsessed with social media? The influence of compulsive social media usage on trip experience. In R. Schegg, & B. Stangl (Eds.), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2017 (pp. 669-681). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51168-9_48

Spinhoven, P., Elzinga, B. M., Hovens, J. G., Roelofs, K., Zitman, F. G., van Oppen, P., & Penninx, B. W. (2010). The specificity of childhood adversities and negative life events across the life span to anxiety and depressive disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders126(1-2), 103-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2010.02.132

Sriwilai, K., & Charoensukmongkol, P. (2016). Face it, don’t Facebook it: impacts of social media addiction on mindfulness, coping strategies and the consequence on emotional exhaustion. Stress and Health32(4), 427-434. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2637

Turel, O., He, Q., Brevers, D., & Bechara, A. (2018). Delay discounting mediates the association between posterior insular cortex volume and social media addiction symptoms. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience18, 694-704. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-018-0597-1

Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. (2018). Hanehalkı bilişim teknolojileri kullanım araştırması, 2018 [Household information technology usage research, 2018]. Report 27819. https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Bulten/Index?p=Hanehalki-Bilisim-Teknolojileri-(BT)-Kullanim-Arastirmasi-2018-27819

van den Eijnden, R. J., Lemmens, J. S., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2016). The social media disorder scale. Computers in Human Behavior61, 478-487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.03.038

Wright, M. O. D., Crawford, E., & Del Castillo, D. (2009). Childhood emotional maltreatment and later psychological distress among college students: The mediating role of maladaptive schemas. Child Abuse & Neglect33(1), 59-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2008.12.007

Yu, L., Cao, X., Liu, Z., & Wang, J. (2018). Excessive social media use at work: exploring the effects of social media overload on job performance. Information Technology & People31(6), 1091-1112. https://doi.org/10.1108/ITP-10-2016-0237

Zinna, M. A. A., & Thanusri, R. (2018). Materialism, happiness and social media addiction among adolescents. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 6(2), 5-15. https://ijip.in/articles/materialism-happiness-and-social-media-addiction-among-adolescents/

Announcement

EDUPIJ News!

► New issue coming soon! (Volume 10 Issue 2, 2021)

► Educational Process: international journal has been accepted for inclusion in Scopus | Elsevier and Education Research Abstracts Online (ERA).