Volume 7 Issue 1 (2018)

Kosovo’s Low Performance in PISA 2015: An Explanation From a Socioeconomic Perspective

pp. 48-59  |  Published Online: February 2018  |  DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2018.71.4

Arif Shala, Albulene Grajcevci

Abstract

This paper will analyze the performance of Kosovar students in PISA 2015 and explain the low performance from a socioeconomic standpoint. On its first participation in this assessment, Kosovo was ranked among the three lowest achieving countries. It is the argument of this paper that parental education and home possessions, both measures of socioeconomic status, determined the performance of students in Kosovo. There is compelling evidence that links student achievement and socioeconomic factors, a link that is well established in research. PISA is the first study to link student achievement in international assessments and socioeconomic factors in Kosovo and this paper is the first one research this link in the case of Kosovo. According to the PISA results, the higher the education levels of the primary caregiver, the higher the achievement of the student. In terms of home possessions, the higher the numbers of resources (Internet, computers etc.) the higher the student achievement in mathematics, reading and science. In light of this evidence, any policy that fails to account for the impact of familial socioeconomic status will not improve the education quality in Kosovo.

Keywords: Kosovo, PISA 2015, socioeconomic status, parental education, low performance

References

Aber, J. L., Jones, S. M., & Cohen, J. (2000). The impact of poverty on the mental health and development of very young children. In C. H. Zeanah, Jr. (Ed.), Handbook of infant mental health (2nd ed.) (pp. 113-128). New York: Guilford Press.

Bradley, R. H., & Corwyn, R. F. (2002). Socioeconomic Status and Child Development. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 371-399.

Ciccone, A., & Garcia-Fontes, W. (2009). The Quality of the Catalan and Spanish Education systems : A perspective from PISA. IESE Business School, University of Navarra. Barcelona: Pearson. Retrieved from www.iese.edu/research/pdfs/DI-0810-E.pdf

Coleman, J. S. (1968). The Concept of Equality of Educational Opportunity. Harvard Educational Review, 38(1), 7-22.

Davis-Kean, P. (2005). The influence of parent education and family income on child achievement: The indirect role of parental expectations and the home environment. Journal of Family Psychology, 19(2), 294-304.

de Broucker, P., & Underwood, K. (1998). Intergenerational education mobility: An international comparison with a focus on postsecondary education. Education Quarterly Review, 5(2), 30-45.

Drolet, M. (2005). Participation in post-secondary education in Canada: Has the role of parental income and education changed over the 1990s? Statistics Canada Catalogue No. 11F0019MIE - No. 243. Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada. Available from http://www.statcan.ca/english/research/ 11F0019MIE/11F0019MIE2005243.pdf 

Edgerton, J., Peter, T., & Roberts, L. W. (2008). Back to the Basics: Socio-Economic, Gender, and Regional Disparities in Canada’s Educational System. Canadian Journal of Education, 31(4), 861-888.

Evans, G., & Rosenbaum, J. (2008) Self-regulation and the Income-achievement Gap, Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23(4), 504-514. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2008.07.002

Filmer, D., & Pritchett, L. (1999). The effect of household wealth on educational attainment: evidence from 35 countries. Population Development Review, 25(1), 85-120.

Gershoff, E. T., Aber, J. L., Raver, C. C., & Lennon, M. C. (2007). Income is not enough: Incorporating material hardship into models of income associations with parenting and child development. Child Development, 78(1), 70-95.

Grajcevci, A. & Shala, A. (2017). Investigating the link between achievement goals, motivation and parent expectations in university students in Kosovo. Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal, 7(4), http://www.cepsj.si/pdfs/cepsj_7_4/pp_147-164.pdf

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible Learning. London: Routledge.

Hoff, E., Laursen, B., & Tardif, T. (2002). Socioeconomic status and parenting. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of Parenting Vol 2: Biology and Ecology of Parenting (pp. 231-252). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence.

Knighton, T., & Mirza, S. (2002). Postsecondary participation: The effects of parents’ education and household income. Education Quarterly Review, 8(3), 25-32. Available from http://www.statcan.ca/ english/freepub/81-003-XIE/0030181-003-XIE.pdf

Lareau, A., & Weininger, E. (2003). Cultural capital in educational research: A critical assessment. Theory and Society, 32(5/6), 567-606.

Mackner, L. M., Black, M. M., Starr, H. S., Jr. (2003). Cognitive development of children in    poverty with failure to thrive: A prospective study through age 6. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, pp. 743–751.

Noel, S., & de Broucker, P. (2001). Intergenerational inequities: A comparative analysis of the influence of parents’ educational background on length of schooling and literacy skills. In W. Hutmacher, D. Cochrane & N. Bottani (Eds.), In pursuit of equity in education: Using international indicators to compare equity policies (pp. 277-296). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.

OECD. (2001). Knowledge and Skills for Life: first results from PISA 2000. Paris: OECD Publishing.

OECD. (2004). Learning for tomorrow’s world: First results from PISA 2003. Paris: OECD Publishing.

OECD. (2007). Understanding the Social Outcomes of Learning. Paris: OECD Publishing.

OECD. (2010). PISA 2009 Results, vol. II: overcoming social background – equity in learning opportunities and outcomes. Paris: OECD Publishing.

Rajchert, J. M., Zultak, T., & Smulczyk, M. (2014). Predicting Reading Literacy and its Improvement in the Polish National Extension of the PISA Study: The Role of Intelligence, Trait- and State-Anxiety, Socio-Economic Status and School-Type. Learning and Individual Differences, 33, 1-11.

Republic of Kosovo, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. (2016). Kosovo Education Strategic Plan 2017-2021. Prishtina: Republic of Kosovo, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. Retrieved from http://www.kryeministri-ks.net/repository/docs/KOSOVO_EDUCATION_STRATEGIC_PLAN.pdf

Roksa, J., & Potter, D. (2011). Parenting and academic achievement: Intergenerational transmission of educational advantage. Sociology of Education, 84(4), 299-321.

Rumberger, R. W., & Palardy, G. J. (2005). Does segregation still matter? The impact of student composition on academic achievement in high school. Teachers College Record, 107(9), 1999-2045.

Rutkowski, D., & Rutkowski, L. (2013). Measuring Socioeconomic Background in PISA: one size might not fit all. Research in Comparative and International Education, 8(3), 259-278.

Sarsour, K., Sheridan, M., Jutte, D., Nuru-Jeter, A., Hinsh, S., & Boyce, W. T. (2011). Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: the roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17(1), 120-132.

Schulz, W. (2005, April). Measuring the socio-economic background of students and its effect on achievement in PISA 2000 and PISA 2003. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, 7-11 April, 2005. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/8556/ece8cd7efee893fc5510921e5cc81c08ff00.pdf

Shala, A. and Grajcevci, A. (2017). Digital competencies among students populations in Kosovo: The impact of inclusion, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and type of residence. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-017-9657-3

Sirin, S. R. (2005). Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytic Review of Research. Review of Educational Research, 75(3), 417-453.

The World Bank. (2015). The World Bank Group in Kosovo: Country Snapshot 2015. Pristina: The World Bank Group.

UNESCO. (2007). EFA Global Monitoring Report 2007: strong foundations. Paris: UNESCO.

UNESCO. (2010). EFA Global Monitoring Report 2010: reaching the marginalized. Paris: UNESCO.

Ursache, A., Blair, C., & Raver, C.C. (2012).The promotion of self-regulation as a means of enhancing school readiness and early achievement in children at risk for school failure. Child Development Perspectives, 6 (2), 122–128.

Announcement

COPE Membership

Cope logo. 

Educational Process: International Journal is a member of and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). 

Call for Papers

EDUPIJ is calling for submissions to the Volume 7, Issue 4, 2018. Submission Deadline: October 31, 2018.