The Mediator Role of Organizational Justice in the Relationship between Teachers’ Prejudices in their School Relations and Organizational Commitment: A Structural Equation Model
pp. 37-52 | Published Online: March 2017 | DOI: 10.22521/edupij.2017.61.3
Tugba Hosgorur, Yahya Altinkurt, Duygu Kan
This study aims to test the theoretical model developed for the mediator role of organizational justice in the relationship between teachers’ prejudices in their school relations and organizational commitment levels. The research is designed using the survey model. The population comprised of teachers working at primary, secondary, and high schools in the Milas district of Mugla, Turkey, during the 2015-2016 academic year. The research sample comprised of 326 teachers selected through the disproportionate cluster sampling technique. The data for the research was collected through the Prejudices in School Relations Scale, Organizational Justice Scale, and the Organizational Commitment Scale. Pearson correlation coefficients were employed in terms of correlations between the variables observed during the research. The resulting model was tested using the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Research results show that teachers have a medium-level commitment, while their organizational justice perception is slightly over the medium level. Teachers are most prejudicial against managers and students, followed by parents, and least prejudicial against their colleagues. Teachers’ prejudices against their colleagues are relatively low, while their prejudices against managers, students, and parents are close to the medium level. In this research, it was determined that teachers’ organizational justice perception plays a mediator role between the variables of teachers’ prejudices in their school relations and their organizational commitment. The intermediation of organizational justice perception displays a suppression effect in the inversely proportional relationship between teachers’ prejudices and commitment.
Keywords: organizational justice, organizational commitment, prejudiceReferences
Akgunduz, Y., & Guzel, T. (2014). The effect of organizational trust as a mediator role on the relationship between organizational justice with organizational commitment. Anadolu University Journal of Social Sciences, 14(3), 1-18.
Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 1-18.
Allport, G. W. (1979). The nature of prejudice (25th anniversary edition). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Altinkurt, Y. (2010). Orgutsel adalet. In H. B. Memduhoglu & K. Yilmaz (Eds.), Yonetimde yeni yaklasimlar (pp. 275-290). Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
Altinkurt, Y., & Yilmaz, K. (2010). Examining the relationship between management by values and organizational justice by secondary school teachers’ perceptions. Educational Administration: Theory and Practice, 16(4), 463-484.
Ay, G., & Koc, H. (2014). Determine the relation between perception of organizational justice and level of organizational commitment: Study case of teachers. Journal of Business Research Turk, 6(2), 67-90.
Babaoglan, E., & Erturk, E. (2013). The relationship between teachers’ organizational justice perception and organizational commitment. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 28(2), 87-101.
Bakhshi, A., Kumar, K., & Rani, E. (2009). Organizational justice perceptions as predictor of job satisfaction and organization commitment. International Journal of Business and Management, 4(9), 145-154.
Bandalos, D. L., & Finney, S. J. (2001). Item parceling issues in structural equation modelling. In G. A. Marcoulides & R. E. Schumacker (Eds.), New developments and techniques in structural equation modeling (pp. 269-296). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.
Bies, R. J., & Shapiro, D. L. (1987). Interactional fairness judgments: The influence of causal accounts. Social Justice Research, 1(2), 199-218.
Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. NY: Guilford.
Cevizci, A. (1996). Felsefe sozlugu. Ankara: Ekin.
Chughtai, A. A., & Zafar, S. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment among Pakistani university teachers. Applied H.R.M. Research, 11(1), 39-64.
Cohen, A. (2003). Multiple commitments in the workplace: An integrative approach. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Cohen-Charash, Y., & Spector, P. E. (2001). The role of justice in organizations: A meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86(2), 278-321.
Cokluk, O. (2010). Logistic regression: Concept and application. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 10(3), 1357-1407.
Colak, I., Altinkurt, Y., & Yilmaz, K. (2014). The relationship between teachers’ teacher leadership roles and organizational commitment levels. Educational Process: International Journal, 3(1-2), 35-51.
Colquitt, J. A., LePine, J. A., & Wesson, M. J. (2015). Organizational behavior: Improving performance and commitment in the workplace. Fourth edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
Cuceloglu, D. (2015). Insan ve davranisi: Psikolojinin temel kavramlari. Istanbul: Remzi.
Devos, G., Tuytens, M., & Hulpia, H. (2014). Teachers’ organizational commitment: Examining the mediating effects of distributed leadership. American Journal of Education, 120(2), 205-231.
Erdogan, C. (2012). The culture of trust in elementary schools and its relationship with prejudice (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Ankara University, Ankara.
Fein, S., & Spencer S. J. (1997). Prejudice as self-image maintenance: Affirming the self through derogating others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(1), 31-44.
Folger, R. G., & Cropanzano, R. (1998). Organizational justice and human resource management. CA: Sage.
Garipagaoglu, B. C. (2013). Examining organizational commitment of private school teachers. Journal of Educational and Instructional Studies in the World, 3(2), 22-28.
Greenberg, J. (1996). The quest for justice on the job. CA: Sage.
Greenberg, J., & Tyler, T. R. (1987). Why procedural justice in organizations? Social Justice Research, 1(2), 127-142.
Gul, Z. (2015). Impact of employee commitment on organizational development. FWU Journal of Social Sciences, 9(2), 117-124.
Hagtvet K. A., & Nasser, F. M. (2004). How well do item parcels represent conceptually defined latent constructs? A Two-Facet Approach. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 11(2), 168-193.
Hosgorur, T., & Yorulmaz, Y. İ. (2016). The effect of power sources used by lecturers in class management on the pre-service teachers’ perceptions of fairness regarding their learning environment. Cukurova University Faculty of Education Journal, 45(2), 375-404.
Hoy, W. K., & Tarter, C. J. (2004). Organizational justice in schools: No justice without trust. International Journal of Educational Management, 18(4), 250-259.
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55.
Joreskog, K. G., & Sorbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8: Structural equation modeling with the simplis command language. Lincolnwood: Scientific Software International, Inc.
Kagitcibasi, C. (2006). Yeni insan ve insanlar. Istanbul: Evrim.
Kanter, R. M. (1968). Commitment and social organization: A study of commitment mechanisms in utopian communities. American Sociological Review, 33(4), 499-517.
Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. NY: Guilford.
Lemyre, L., & Smith, P. M. (1985). Intergroup discrimination and self-esteem in the minimal group paradigm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49(3), 660-670.
Lindsley, S. L. (1998). Communicating prejudice in organizations. In M. L. Hecht (Ed.), Communicating Prejudice (pp. 187-205). California: Sage.
Little, T. D., Cunningham, W. A., Shahar, G., & Widaman, K. F. (2002). To parcel or not to parcel: Exploring the question, weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 9(2), 151-173.
Little, T. D., Rhemtulla, M., Gibson, K., & Schoemann, A. M. (2013). Why the items versus parcels controversy needn’t be one. Psychological Methods, 18(3), 285-300.
Lowe, R. H., & Vodanovich, S. J. (1995). A field study of distributive and procedural justice as predictors of satisfaction and organizational commitment. Journal of Business and Psychology, 10(1), 99-114.
MacKinnon, D. P. (2008). Introduction to statistical mediation analysis. Mahwah, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum.
MacKinnon, D. P., Krull, J. L., & Lockwood, C. M. (2000). Equivalence of the mediation, confounding and suppression effect. Prevention Science, 1(4), 173-181.
Marshall, G. (1999). Sosyoloji sozlugu [A dictionary of sociology] (O. Akinhay & D. Komurcu Trans.). Ankara: Bilim ve Sanat.
Martin, C. L., & Bennett N. (1996). The role of justice judgments in explaining the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Group and Organizational Management, 21(1), 84‐104.
Matsunaga, M. (2008). Item parceling in structural equation modeling: A primer. Communication Methods and Measures, 2(4), 260-293.
Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1(1), 61-89.
Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1997). Commitment in the workplace: Theory, research, and application. CA: Sage Publications.
Moorman, R. H. (1991). Relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors: Do fairness perceptions influence employee citizenship? Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(6), 845-855.
Mowday, R. T., Porter, L. W., & Steers, R. M. (1982). Employee-organization linkages: The psychology of commitment, absenteeism, and turnover. NY: Academic Press.
Myers, R. (1990). Classical and modern regression with applications. Boston, MA: Duxbury.
Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Canada: Lexington.
Ozdevecioglu, M. (2003). Algilanan orgutsel adaletin bireylerarasi saldirgan davranislar uzerindeki etkilerinin belirlenmesine yonelik bir arastirma. Erciyes Universitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakultesi Dergisi, 21, 77-96.
Ozgan, H. (2011). The relationships between organizational justice, confidence, commitment, and evaluating the manager and the perceptions of conflict management at the context of organizational behavior. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 11(1), 241-247.
Ozkalp, E., & Kirel, C. (2004). Orgutsel davranıs. Eskisehir: Anadolu University Press.
Oztug, O., & Bastas, M. (2012). The effects of teachers’ organizational justice perceptions on organizational commitment. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 2(Special Issue), 125-133.
Reicher, S. (2012). From perception to mobilization: The shifting paradigm of prejudice. In J. Dixon & M. Levine (Eds.), Beyond prejudice: Extending the social psychology of conflict, inequality and social change (pp. 27-47). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Salancik, G. R. (1977). Commitment and the control of organizational behavior and belief. In A. M. Staw & G. R. Salancik (Eds.), New directions in organizational behavior (pp. 1-54). Chicago: St. Clair Press.
Sandel, A. A. (2014). The Place of prejudice: A case for reasoning within the world. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Sesen, H., & Basim, H. N. (2012). Impact of satisfaction and commitment on teachers’ organizational citizenship. Educational Psychology, 32(4), 475-491.
Sharma, P., & Sinha, V. (2015). The Influence of occupational rank on organizational commitment of faculty members. Management, 20(2), 71-91.
Skarlicki, D. P., & Folger, R. (1997). Retaliation in the workplace: The roles of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(3), 434-443.
Sothan, Y., Baoku, L., & Xiang, W. Z. (2016). Study of the effect of organizational commitment on employee creativity: Mediating role of knowledge sharing. International Journal of Management, Accounting and Economics, 3(7), 399-410.
Stangor, C. (2016). The Study of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination within social psychology: A quick history of theory and research. In T. D. Nelson (Ed.), Handbook of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination (pp. 1-27). NY: Psychology Press.
Steers, R. M. (1977). Antecedents and outcomes of organizational commitment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 22(1), 46-56.
Sumer, N. (2000). Yapisal esitlik modelleri. Turk Psikoloji Yazilari, 3(6), 49-74.
Tabachnick B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of inter-group behavior. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), Psychology of Intergroup Relations (pp. 7-24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Tasdan, M., & Yilmaz, K. (2008). Organizational citizenship and organizational justice scales’ adaptation to Turkish. TED Egitim ve Bilim Dergisi, 33(150), 87-96.
Ugurlu, C. T., & Ustuner, M. (2011). Effects of administrators’ leadership and organizational justice behavior on teachers’ organizational commitment level. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 41, 434-448.
Uslu, B., & Beycioglu, K. (2013). The relationship between organizational commitments of elementary school teachers and the distributed leadership roles of principals. Ondokuz Mayis University Journal of Faculty of Education, 32(2), 323-345.
Ustuner, M. (2009). Teachers’ organizational commitment scale: A validity and reliability study. Inonu University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 10(1), 1-17.
Yilmaz, K. (2010). Secondary public school teachers’ perceptions about organizational justice. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 10(1), 579-616.