Determining School Administrators’ Perceptions on Institutional Culture: A Qualitative Study
pp. 152-166 | Published Online: March 2016 | DOI: 10.12973/edupij.2016.52.6
Secil Eda Kartal
Schools, the where educational activities are carried out, are among the major institutions society considers as important. Schools undertake strategic responsibilities in maintaining cultural values and conveying them to future generations. The primary responsibility in achieving these missions is assigned to the school administrators. The purpose of this study is to determine the perceptions of school administrators on institutional culture. This is a qualitative study conducted on school administrators who were selected based on the volunteering principle. Perceptions of school administrators concerning their institutions’ culture and the differences between their institutional culture and other institution’s cultures were determined and analyzed. Findings of this study suggest that school administrators have both positive and negative opinions regarding their institutional culture and cultural difference. While love-respect, collaboration-solidarity and common history were prominent positive opinions; lack of communication, lack of shared values and low expectation were prominent negative opinions. In addition, participants stated the environment as a crucial factor when defining culture.
Keywords: school, culture, institutional culture, school administrator, cultural perceptionReferences
Alvesson, M. (2012). Understanding organizational culture (2nd ed.). London: Sage.
Arslan, H., Kuru, M., & Satici, A. (2005). A Comparison of Organizational Culture in Turkish Primary Schools and High Schools. Educational Administration: Theory and Practice, 11(4), 449-472.
Aydogdu-Ozoglu, E. (2015). Analysis of School Culture from the Symbolic Perspective: An Ethnographic Study. Unpublished Doctorate Dissertation, Osmangazi University, Educational Sciences Institute, Eskisehir, Turkey.
Ayik, A., & Sayir, G. (2015). Investigation of the relationship between learning organization and school culture according to perceptions of teachers. Elementary Education Online, 14(2), 379‐394.
Balkar, B. (2015). Examining the cultural leadership behaviors of school principals within the context of symmetric and asymmetric school culture. International Journal of Science Culture and Sport, 12, 274-287.
Barnett, K., & McCormick J. (2004). Leadership and individual principal-teacher relationships in schools. Educational Administration Quarterly, 40(3), 400-406.
Barth, R. S. (2002). The culture builder. Educational Leadership, 59, 6-11.
Bipath, K. (2012). Exploring the role of the principal in creating a functional school culture. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(17), 203-209.
Celep, C. (2002). Learning Culture in Primary Schools. Educational Administration: Theory and Practice, 8, 356-373.
Celik, V. (2002). Okul kulturu ve yonetimi. Ankara: Pegem A Yayincilik.
Celikten, M. (2003). Okul kulturunun sekillendirilmesinde mudurun rolleri. Turk Egitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 1(4), 453-462.
Chen, L. Y. (2004). Examining the effect of organization culture and leadership behaviors on organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and job performance at small and middle-sized firms of Taiwan. The Journal of the American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 5(1-2), 432-438.
Cooke, R. A., & Rousseau, D. M. (1988). Behavioral norms and expectations a quantitative approach to the assessment of organizational culture. Group & organization management, 13(3), 245-273.
Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication.
Crozby, P., & Bates, S. (2011).
Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2000). Handbook of Qualitative Research. London: Sage Publications.
Ekinci, N. (2012). Teacher Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Candidate Teachers in Education Faculty and Pedagogical Formation Program. Educational Process: International Journal, 1(1-2), 19-28.
Engels, N., Hotton, G., Devos, G., Bouckenooghe, D., & Aelterman, A. (2008). Principals in schools with a positive school culture. Educational Studies, 34(3), 159-174.
Erickson, F. (1987). Conceptions of school culture: An overview. Educational Administration Quarterly, 23(4), 11-24.
Glisson, C., & James, L. R. (2002). The cross-level effects of culture and climate in human service teams. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 767-794.
Gur, B. S., & Celik, Z. (2009). Turkiye’de milli egitim sistemi: yapisal sorunlar ve oneriler. Ankara: SETA.
Habegger, S. (2008). The Principal's role in successful schools: Creating a positive school culture. Principal, 88(1), 42-46.
Hallinger, P., & Heck, R. H. (1998). Exploring the principal’s contribution to school effectiveness: 1980–1995. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 9(2), 157‑191.
Hargreaves, D. H. (1995). School Culture, School Effectiveness and School Improvement, School Effectiveness and School Improvement: An International Journal of Research, Policy and Practice, 6(1), 23-46.
Hinde, E. R. (2004). School Culture and Change: an examination of the effects of school culture on the process of change. Arizona State University West.
Hofstede, G. (1998). Attitudes, values and organizational culture: Disentangling the concepts. Organization Studies, 19, 477-492.
Hofstede, G., Neuijen, B., Ohayv, D. D., & Sanders, G. (1990). Measuring organizational cultures: a qualitative and quantitative study across twenty cases. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(2), 286-316.
Hollins, E. (1996). Culture in school learning: Revealing the deep meaning. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hoy, W. K. (1990). Organizational climate and culture: a conceptual analysis of the school workplace. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 1(2), 149-168.
Ipek, C. (1999). Organizational culture and teacher-student relationship in public and private secondary schools. Unpublished doctorate dissertation. Ankara: Ankara University.
Jacobson, S. (2011). Leadership effects on student achievement and sustained school success. International Journal of Educational Management, 25(1), 33-44.
Johnson, R. B., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2004). Mixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come. Educational Researcher, 33(7), 14-26.
Kabasakal-Atalay, K., Sahin-Gocer, S., Kelecioglu, H., Gelbal, S., Atar, B., & Dogan, N. (2015). Examining high school students’ perceptions of democratic school culture. Educational Administration: Theory and Practice, 21(2), 247-270.
Karadag, N., & Ozdemir, S. (2015). School principals’ opinions regarding creation and development of school culture. International Journal of Science Culture and Sport, Special Issue 4, 259-273.
Karakose, T. (2008). The perceptions of primary school teachers on principal cultural leadership behaviors. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 8(2), 555-579.
Kartal, S. E., Yirci, R., & Ozdemir, T. Y. (2015). Teachers’, Parents’ and Students’ Perceptions Regarding the Problems in Turkey’s National Education System: A Qualitative Study. European Journal of Education Studies, 7, (1), 35-46.
Kilmann, R. H., Saxton, M. J., & Serpa, R. (1986). Issues in understanding and changing culture. California Management Review, 28(2), 87-94.
Kosterelioglu, I., & Bayar, A. (2014). A contemporary evaluation on the problems of Turkish educational system. International Journal of Social Science, 25(1), 177-187.
Kubiatko, M., & Arik, R. S. (2014).Comparison of the Effects of Gender Variable on Attitudes Towards the Teaching Profession by Random and Fixed Effects Model: Meta-Analysis. Educational Process: International Journal, 3(1-2), 52-64.
Leithwood, K., & Jantzi, D. (1990). Transformational leadership: How principals can help reform school cultures. School effectiveness and School Improvement, 1(4), 249-280.
MacNeil, A. J., Prater, D. L., & Busch, S. (2009). The effects of school culture and climate on student achievement. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 12(1), 73-84.
Merriam, S. B. (2013). Nitel Arastirma Desen ve Uygulama Icin Bir Rehber (Trans., S. Turan). Ankara: Nobel.
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis. London: Sage Publication.
Ozdemir, A. (2006). Expected and observed behaviors of the school principles in the formation and public presentation of school culture. Turk Egitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 4(4), 411-433.
Ozturk, Z., & Maral, S. (2015). The school culture predictor of organizational commitment of elementary and secondary vice (Yalova Sample). Journal of Business Research-Turk, 7(2), 63-86.
Papadopoulou, V., & Yirci, R. (2013). Rethinking Decentralization in Education in terms of Administrative Problems. Educational Process: International Journal, 2(1-2), 7-18.
Pawlas, G. E. (1997). Vision and school culture. NASSP Bulletin, 81(587), 118-120.
Peterson, K. D., & Deal, T. E. (1998). How leaders influence the culture of schools.Educational Leadership, 56, 28-31.
Peterson, K. D., & Deal, T. E. (2011).The shaping school culture fieldbook. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.
Pulat, I. (2010). The perceptions of teachers working for Denizli primary schools toward organizational culture and its importance. Unpublished master's thesis. Denizli: Pamukkale University.
Rashid, Z. A., Sambasivan, M., & Johari, J. (2003). The influence of corporate culture and organisational commitment on performance. Journal of Management Development, 22, 708-728.
Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Sezgin, F. (2010). Culture as a Predictor of Teachers’ Organizational Commitment. Education and Science, 35(156), 142-159.
Simsek, A. (2014). School administrators’ perception of organizational culture.
Simsek, A., & Babaoglan, E. (2015). School administrators' opinion about organizational culture. Elementary Education Online, 14(4), 1222-1240.
Sisman, M. (2007). Orgutler ve Kulturler. Ankara: Pegem A.
Stoll, L. (1998). School culture. School Improvement Network's Bulletin, 9, 9-14.
Terzi, A. R. (2000). Orgut Kulturu.
Tierney, W. G. (1988). Organizational culture in higher education: Defining the essentials. The Journal of Higher Education, 59(1), 2-21.
Tsai, Y. (2011). Relationship between organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction. BMC Health Services Research, 11, 98-106.
Turkmenoglu, G., & Bulbul, T. (2015). Reflections on the school culture of types of school administrators’ appointments. Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 11, 2, n.p.
Ustuner, M. (2004). Teacher training and current problems in the past to the present Turkish education system. Inonu Universitesi Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi, 5(7), 63-82.
Uzuntarla, Y., Goksel, A., & Kilic, S. (2015). School culture in health education institutions: Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GMMA), Health Noncommissioned Officer College Example. Gulhane Medical Journal, 57, 165-169.
Waldron, N. L., & McLeskey, J. (2010). Establishing a collaborative school culture through comprehensive school reform. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 20(1), 58-74.
Yalazan, A. (2006). The roles of the school administrators about forming in creative organization culture in common high school. Unpublished master's thesis. Ankara: Gazi University.
Call for Papers
EDUPIJ is calling for submissions to the Volume 8, Issue 2, 2019. Submission Deadline: March 31, 2019.
Note: Currently, the issue of EDUPIJ (Vol. 8, Issue 1, 2019) is being prepared for publication by the Editorial Office.