Functions of Teacher and Student Code-Switching in an EFL Classroom and Pedagogical Focus: Observations and Implications
pp. 7-18 | Published Online: | DOI: 10.12973/edupij.2012.112.1
Code-switching (CS), the alternation between two or more languages within a stretch of language, is accepted as a valuable strategy of bilinguals in making linguistic choices for communicative purposes. Following different perspectives, CS can be understood either as an attempt to communicate meanings at the macro level (such as identity, solidarity etc.), or to convey intended meaning to the listener within the boundaries of conversational interaction at the micro level. Accepted as a strategy of speakers in bilingual communities, CS in foreign language learning settings is still a contentious matter. However, its potential has been emphasized in recent studies. This small-scale study examines teacher and student CS occurrences in an EFL lesson at a Turkish state university. CS occurrences were transcribed and sample extracts were analyzed through conversational analysis. The results show that teachers and learners apply CS to generate access to language or as a tool in classroom management. This study also reveals that CS can be a learner strategy to avoid L2 when lesson content is of little relevance to learners. In such cases CS cannot fulfil its potential as a means in discourse strategy, and language learning is unlikely to be facilitated.
Keywords: code-switching, classroom discourse, pedagogical focus, conversation analysis, EFL.
Rethinking Decentralization in Education in terms of Administrative Problems
pp. 7-18 | Published Online: | DOI: 10.12973/edupij.2013.212.1
Vasiliki Papadopoulou, Ramazan Yirci
The general purpose of this study is to thoroughly examine decentralization in education according to the literature and previous research, and to discuss the applicability of educational decentralization practices in Turkey. The literature was reviewed for the study and findings reported. It has been observed that decentralization in education practices were realized in many countries after the 1980’s. It is obvious that the educational system in Turkey has difficulty in meeting the needs, and encounters many problems due to its present centralist state. Educational decentralization can provide effective solutions for stakeholder engagement, educational financing and for problems in decision making and operation within the education system. However, the present state of local governments, the legal framework, geographical, cultural and social features indicate that Turkey’s conditions are not ready for decentralization in education. A decentralization model realized in the long run according to Turkey’s conditions, and as a result of a social consensus, can help resolve the problems of the Turkish education system.
Keywords: decentralization, educational management, administrative problems, Turkish educational system
The Relationship between Teachers’ Teacher Leadership Roles and Organizational Commitment Levels
pp. 35-51 | Published Online: | DOI: 10.12973/edupij.2014.312.3
Ibrahim Colak, Yahya Altinkurt, Kursad Yilmaz
The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between teacher leadership roles and organizational commitment levels of primary, secondary, and high school teachers. This study was designed in survey model. The sample of the study consisted of 280 teachers working in Mugla, Turkey. Participants were selected using disproportionate cluster sampling technique. Data was collected through the application of the Teacher Leadership Scale and Teacher Organizational Commitment Scale. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficients were used to analyse the data. Based on the findings, teachers’ level of performing leadership roles was lower than they consider such roles to be necessary. Teachers consider that the professional improvement dimension of teacher leadership was the most necessary, and should be performed accordingly. This is followed by collaboration among colleagues, and institutional improvement. Teachers also consider that they demonstrate moderate level of commitment. There are significant relationships between teachers’ teacher leadership roles and organizational commitment levels.
Keywords: teacher leadership, leadership, organizational commitment
The Relationship between Teachers’ Occupational Professionalism and Organizational Alienation
pp. 31-44 | Published Online: | DOI: 10.12973/edupij.2015.412.3
Yilmaz Ilker Yorulmaz, Yahya Altinkurt, Kursad Yilmaz
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between occupational professionalism and organizational alienation levels of teachers. The study is designed as a survey model. The sample of the study consists of 303 teachers working in the Mugla province of Turkey. Participants were selected by using the disproportionate cluster sampling technique. Data was collected through the application of the Teachers’ Occupational Professionalism Scale and the Work Alienation Scale. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA and correlation analyses were used to analyze the data. Based on the findings, the participant teachers’ level of occupational professionalism is high. Among the occupational professionalism dimensions, teachers consider they have professional awareness the most. This is followed by emotional labor, contribution to organization, and personal development. Teachers’ occupational professionalism differ according to gender and school type variables, while it does not differ according to seniority and time in service at the current school. The participant teachers’ organizational alienation is low. Among the alienation dimensions, teachers consider alienating the school the most, even if its level is low. This is followed respectively by powerlessness, isolation and meaninglessness dimensions. Teachers’ organizational alienation differs according to gender, school type, seniority and time in service at the current school variables. There are significant relationships between alienation and occupational professionalism levels of teachers.
Keywords: occupational professionalism, teacher, organizational alienation, professionalism
A Situational Analysis of Educational Supervision in the Turkish Educational System
pp. 56-70 | Published Online: | DOI: 10.12973/edupij.2015.412.5
Tuncay Yavuz Ozdemir, Ramazan Yirci
The purpose of this study is to conduct a situational analysis on the educational supervisions carried out within the Turkish educational system. Content analysis was used in this study, which is one of the qualitative research methods. An interview form was prepared by the researchers in accordance with the study purpose and expert opinion sought to ensure content and face validity. Findings of the study show that; supervision is necessary for an increase in educational quality, sustainability of educational worker development, determination and elimination of possible deficiencies, to ensure not falling behind developments in the educational system, and to collaborate within the school. It has been determined that the agents who carry out the supervision should have professional competencies, should be able to enter into effective communication, should be able to spare enough time for supervision and follow the principles of equality. In addition, the importance of effective and sufficient guidance and parental participation was highlighted. In a change to the Turkish educational system in 2014, the authority and responsibility of supervision was assigned to the school principals. Because it would decrease the psychological pressure that supervision imposes on educational workers, and enable a positive atmosphere for communication over a prolonged period, this change was believed to be beneficial overall. According to another standpoint, because school principals lack professional competencies regarding educational supervision and do not follow the principles of equality, this change instead was believed to be unfavorable.
Keywords: educational supervision, supervision, inspector, effective supervision
Students’ Attitudes Towards Collaborative Tools In A Virtual Learning Environment
pp. 71-86 | Published Online: | DOI: 10.12973/edupij.2015.412.6
Serife Kalayci, Kim Raymond Humiston
The purpose of this study is to investigate prep class university students’ attitudes towards collaborative tools used in Moodle. Also it was aimed to find out whether or not there is a difference in students’ attitudes towards traditional and collaborative activities. The participants of the study, 28 non-English major university students, who had three-hours of Self Access Centre lessons per week, used a virtual learning environment named ‘Moodle’ for two hours each week. In order to investigate the attitudes, the participants were administered a computer readiness scale at the beginning of the study. At the end, a questionnaire was administered, and to support the data, screenshots of the activities were taken and twelve participants were interviewed. Results show that the collaborative tools in the virtual learning environment have significant positive effects according to the participants’ opinions. The students have significantly positive attitudes towards the collaborative tools, although they have not had enough experience of collaborative work. Also the students do not reflect positive attitudes towards traditional activities and, accordingly do not use them much.
Keywords: virtual learning environment, collaborative tools, students’ attitudes
Ostracism among Gifted Adolescents: A Preliminary Study in Turkey
pp. 18-30 | Published Online: | DOI: 10.12973/edupij.2015.412.2
Ostracism has an influence on psychological and social functioning. The aim of this study is to examine ostracism among gifted students, with regard to gender and grade levels. Also, the relationship between ostracism and intelligence level was investigated. The study was conducted in a gifted education center, with 94 gifted students who were attending middle school (grades 5-8). The Ostracism Experience Scale for Adolescents and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – Revised Form were employed as data collection tools. According to the findings obtained from the study, it is concluded that ostracism did not differ in terms of gender among gifted students. Besides, being socially excluded may be higher in 8th grades than 6th and 7th grades. Also in the study, a positive correlation was found between intelligence level and ostracism. Discussion and suggestions were also provided based on the results.
Keywords: gifted students, ostracism, exclusion, adolescents
“A Journey to Bilingualism” A Case Study of German-Turkish Bilingual Family
pp. 29-38 | Published Online: | DOI: 10.12973/edupij.2012.112.3
The current study aims to investigate how a bilingual family perceives their bilingualism process and what they have done based on their attitudes and beliefs to support their children’s bilingual development. To that end, a family consisting of a German father, Turkish mother, 13-year old daughter, 9-year old son was asked to respond to interview questions. The results of the study showed that family used one person-one language strategy (Romaine, 1999) for raising bilingual kids. The father took the responsibility of raising the children bilingually and read books in the target language as an extra activity apart from always communicating in German with them. All of the participants seem to be aware of their weaknesses and strengths in their language competence.
Keywords: bilingualism, German-Turkish bilinguals
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Social Networks and their Usage by High School Students
pp. 7-18 | Published Online: | DOI: 10.12973/edupij.2014.312.1
Chich-Jen Shieh, Murat Demirkol
Social networks are virtual environments created by humans through software and programs. Today, social networks have expanded and become more commonplace. Individuals identify themselves through these internet networks and use their communication methods to enable them to get in touch with people from the same or different cultures. It is known that social networks have advantages as well as some disadvantages. The main purpose of this study is to determine why, how, and how frequently students use online social communication networks, and to identify the effects of these social networks on their education and social lives according to the opinions of high school students. In this study, one of each of the three high education institutions in a city center were randomly selected and the opinions of 63 students studying at different grades of these schools were collected. According to the results of this study, a significant percentage of participants regularly benefit from social network websites. The majority of opinions indicate that the participants use social network websites with the aim of communication and education.
Keywords: social network, high school students, qualitative research
The Relationship between the Environmental Awareness, Environmental Attitude, Curiosity and Exploration in Highly Gifted Students: Structural Equation Modelling
pp. 7-17 | Published Online: | DOI: 10.12973/edupij.2015.412.1
Hakan Saricam, Suleyman Hilmi Sahin
The basic purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between environmental awareness, environmental attitude, curiosity and exploration in highly gifted students with structural equation modelling. The secondary aim was to compare highly gifted and non-gifted students’ environmental awareness, environmental attitude, curiosity and exploration levels. Participants were 311 (154 highly gifted, 157 non-gifted) secondary school students in Turkey who volunteered to take part in this study. All of the participants were either 13 or 14 years old, with a mean age of 13.77 years. For gathering data, Environmental Awareness Scale, Environmental Attitude Scale, Curiosity and Exploration-II were used. While analyzing the data, Pearson correlation analysis, independent samples t test, and structural equation model were used. According to the findings, highly gifted students’ environmental awareness, environmental attitude, curiosity and exploration scores were higher than non-gifted students’. Indices of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) indicated that the increase in the curiosity and exploration scores of the highly gifted children increased the environmental awareness; in this case, the environmental attitudes were affected positively.
Keywords: curiosity and exploration, environmental awareness, environmental attitude